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Clinical pharmacology

Section edited by Catherine Sherwin 

This section considers submissions that focus on all areas of clinical pharmacology including rational prescribing, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigillance, pharmacoepidemiology and clinical trials.

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  1. A few cases of adverse reactions linked to erroneous use of transdermal opioid patches have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe and characterize medication errors (MEs) assoc...

    Authors: Henrik Lövborg, Mikael Holmlund and Staffan Hägg

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem both in hospital and community acquired infections. The present study assessed the knowledge and beliefs on AMR among physicians and nurse...

    Authors: Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret and Wondemagegn Mulu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:26

    Content type: Research article

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  3. HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily c...

    Authors: Vicent P Manyanga, Omary Minzi and Billy Ngasala

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:24

    Content type: Research article

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  4. It is unclear whether concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the risk of recurrence of cardiovascular disease or death in patients at high risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Rickard Ljung, Jesper Lagergren and Yunxia Lu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:22

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic commonly used in critically ill patients to treat severe infections. The available pharmacokinetic (PK) data has been mostly obtained from healthy volunteers as well as fro...

    Authors: João Goncalves-Pereira, Nuno Elvas Silva, André Mateus, Catarina Pinho and Pedro Povoa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:21

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Changes in antihypertensive drug treatment are paramount in the adequate management of patients with hypertension, still, there is little information regarding changes in antihypertensive drug treatment in Swi...

    Authors: Vanessa Christe, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and Pedro Marques-vidal

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:20

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Internationally, there is concern about the increased prescribing of pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). In part, this is related to limited knowledge about the long-term benefits and ou...

    Authors: Gabrielle Campbell, Richard Mattick, Raimondo Bruno, Briony Larance, Suzanne Nielsen, Milton Cohen, Nicholas Lintzeris, Fiona Shand, Wayne D Hall, Bianca Hoban, Chyanne Kehler, Michael Farrell and Louisa Degenhardt

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:17

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Access to good-quality medicines in many countries is largely hindered by the rampant circulation of spurious/falsely labeled/falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) and substandard medicines. In 2006, the Ministry of He...

    Authors: Naoko Yoshida, Mohiuddin Hussain Khan, Hitomi Tabata, Eav Dararath, Tey Sovannarith, Heng Bun Kiet, Nam Nivanna, Manabu Akazawa, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto and Kazuko Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:13

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Bone graft substitute such as calcium sulfate are frequently used as carrier material for local antimicrobial therapy in orthopedic surgery. This study aimed to assess the systemic absorption and disposition o...

    Authors: Françoise Livio, Peter Wahl, Chantal Csajka, Emanuel Gautier and Thierry Buclin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:12

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Because of relatively small treatment numbers together with low adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting rates the timely identification of ADRs affecting children and young people is problematic. The primary obj...

    Authors: Angela Peichen Sun, Bradley Kirby, Corri Black, Peter John Helms, Marion Bennie and James Stuart McLay

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:11

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The irrational overuse of antibiotics should be minimized as it drives the development of antibiotic resistance, but changing these practices is challenging. A better understanding is needed of practices and e...

    Authors: Do Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Nguyen Quynh Hoa, Nguyen Thi Thuy Nguyen, Hoang Thi Loan, Tran Khanh Toan, Ho Dang Phuc, Peter Horby, Nguyen Van Yen, Nguyen Van Kinh and Heiman FL Wertheim

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:6

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Drug use evaluation is a performance improvement method that focuses on evaluating and improving drug use process to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Drug use evaluation helps in identifying, preventing or re...

    Authors: Berhanu Geresu, Desye Misganaw and Yeshiwork Beyene

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:4

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Since the skin represents a common site of adverse drug reactions, few data are reported at this time regarding the development of skin rash during the treatment with antidiabetic drugs.

    Authors: Laura Mumoli, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate, Elena Succurro, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi and Luca Gallelli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:3

    Content type: Case report

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  14. CLP is an orally administered, non-absorbed, superabsorbent polymer being developed to increase fecal excretion of sodium, potassium and water in patients with heart failure and end-stage renal disease. This s...

    Authors: Lee W Henderson, Howard C Dittrich, Alan Strickland, Thomas M Blok, Richard Newman, Thomas Oliphant and Detlef Albrecht

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:2

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Oxaliplatin-based regimens induce a potential risk of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR), with incidence varying from 10% to 25% and lack of clearly identified risk factors. The present study aimed to assess inci...

    Authors: Marie Parel, Florence Ranchon, Audrey Nosbaum, Benoit You, Nicolas Vantard, Vérane Schwiertz, Chloé Gourc, Noémie Gauthier, Marie-Gabrielle Guedat, Sophie He, Eléna Kiouris, Céline Alloux, Thierry Vial, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir, Gilles Freyer, Frédéric Berard…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:1

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. It consists usually in a demyelinating polyneuropathy or mononeu...

    Authors: Mounia Rahmani, Halima Belaidi, Maria Benabdeljlil, Wafa Bouchhab, Nadia El Jazouli, Asmae El Brini, Saadia Aidi, Reda M Ouazzani and Mustapha El Alaoui Faris

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:61

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) exhibit changes in extracellular fluid that may alter the plasma concentrations of beta-lactams and result in therapeutic failure or toxicity. We evaluated the pharmacoki...

    Authors: José C Álvarez, Sonia I Cuervo, Javier R Garzón, Julio C Gómez, Jorge Augusto Díaz, Edelberto Silva, Ricardo Sánchez and Jorge A Cortés

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:59

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Studies have shown that statins have pleiotropic effects on inflammation and coagulation; which may affect the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the a...

    Authors: Shmeylan A Al Harbi, Mohammad Khedr, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Haytham M Tlayjeh, Asgar H Rishu and Yaseen M Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:57

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Psychotropic drugs are widely used among old people with dementia but few studies have described long-term treatment in this group of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term use of psy...

    Authors: Maria Gustafsson, Stig Karlsson, Yngve Gustafson and Hugo Lövheim

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:56

    Content type: Research article

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  20. After the clinical impact of the A(H1N1) pdm09 virus was considered to be mild, treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended only to patients who were at risk for severe disease or who had a complicated cour...

    Authors: Mariëtte Hooiveld, Tine van de Groep, Theo JM Verheij, Marianne AB van der Sande, Robert A Verheij, Margot AJB Tacken and Gerrit A van Essen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:55

    Content type: Research article

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  21. 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been a component of dietary supplements and is also used within "party pills," often in conjunction with alcohol and other drugs. Ingestion of higher than recommended doses res...

    Authors: Brian K Schilling, Kelley G Hammond, Richard J Bloomer, Chaela S Presley and Charles R Yates

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:52

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to pulmonary fibrosis. There are only anecdotal reports of rescue lung transplantation, as paraquat is stored and only...

    Authors: Anna Bertram, Sascha Sebastian Haenel, Johannes Hadem, Marius M Hoeper, Jens Gottlieb, Gregor Warnecke, Stanislav Kaschinski, Carsten Hafer, W Nikolaus Kühn-Velten, Detlef Günther and Jan T Kielstein

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:45

    Content type: Case report

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  23. After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot u...

    Authors: Isis B Yera-Alos, Liuba Alonso-Carbonell, Carmen M Valenzuela-Silva, Angela D Tuero-Iglesias, Martha Moreira-Martínez, Ivonne Marrero-Rodríguez, Ernesto López-Mola and Pedro A López-Saura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:44

    Content type: Research article

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  24. There are many reports of cognitive dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy or targeted therapies. Many antineoplastic agents may be involved in the condition also known as “chemo brain” or “chemo fog”.

    Authors: Adeline Rollin-Sillaire, Xavier Delbeuck, Marianne Pollet, Marie-Anne Mackowiak, Pierre Lenfant, Marie-Pierre Noel, Thierry Facon, Xavier Leleu, Florence Pasquier and Emilie Le Rhun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:41

    Content type: Case report

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  25. The aim of this study was to assess the association between prescription changes frequency (PCF) and hospital admissions and to compare the PCF to the Chronic Disease Score (CDS). The CDS measures comorbidity ...

    Authors: Carolien GM Sino, Rutger Stuffken, Eibert R Heerdink, Marieke J Schuurmans, Patrick C Souverein and Toine (A) CG Egberts

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:39

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Olanzapine use has been reported during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but there are no controlled clinical trials assessing the safety of olanzapine exposure to infants and fetuses. The purpose of this report w...

    Authors: Elizabeth Brunner, Deborah M Falk, Meghan Jones, Debashish K Dey and Chetan Chinmaya Shatapathy

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:38

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The use of substandard and degraded medicines is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Cambodia. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic ac...

    Authors: Mohiuddin Hussain Khan, Kirara Hatanaka, Tey Sovannarith, Nam Nivanna, Lidia Cecilia Cadena Casas, Naoko Yoshida, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto and Kazuko Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:33

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Remogliflozin etabonate (RE) is the prodrug of remogliflozin, a selective inhibitor of the renal sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), which could increase urine glucose excretion (UGE) and lower pla...

    Authors: Anita Kapur, Robin O’Connor-Semmes, Elizabeth K Hussey, Robert L Dobbins, Wenli Tao, Marcus Hompesch, Glenn A Smith, Joseph W Polli, Charles D James Jr, Imao Mikoshiba and Derek J Nunez

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:26

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Rifampicin remains one of the first-line drugs used in tuberculosis therapy. This drug´s potential to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 oxidative enzyme system increases the risk of drug-drug interactions. Th...

    Authors: Maria AP Martins, Adriano MM Reis, Mariana F Sales, Vandack Nobre, Daniel D Ribeiro, Manoel OC Rocha and Antônio LP Ribeiro

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:27

    Content type: Case report

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  30. The sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) is expressed in absorptive epithelia of the renal tubules. Remogliflozin etabonate (RE) is the prodrug of remogliflozin, the active entity that inhibits SG...

    Authors: Elizabeth K Hussey, Anita Kapur, Robin O’Connor-Semmes, Wenli Tao, Bryan Rafferty, Joseph W Polli, Charles D James Jr and Robert L Dobbins

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:25

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the commonest cause of acute liver injury in Europe and North America. The intravenous (IV) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) regimen introduced in the 1970s has continued ef...

    Authors: H K Ruben Thanacoody, Alasdair Gray, James W Dear, Judy Coyle, Euan A Sandilands, David J Webb, Steff Lewis, Michael Eddleston, Simon HL Thomas and D Nicholas Bateman

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:20

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients is challenging. It becomes even more difficult if renal or hepatic impairment ensue. Modern means of renal replacement therapy are capable of removing antibioti...

    Authors: Christian Clajus, W Nikolaus Kühn-Velten, Julius J Schmidt, Johan M Lorenzen, Daniel Pietsch, Gernot Beutel and Jan T Kielstein

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:19

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. Healthcare professional’s knowledge and attitudes to adverse drug reaction (ADR) and ADR reporting play vital role to report any cases of ADR. Positive attitudes may favour ADR reporting by healthcare professi...

    Authors: Santosh KC, Pramote Tragulpiankit, Sarun Gorsanan and I Ralph Edwards

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:16

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The CC-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is thought potentially to play a critical role in asthma pathogenesis due to its ability to recruit type 2 T-helper lymphocytes to the inflamed airways. Therefore, CCR4 provi...

    Authors: Anthony Cahn, Simon Hodgson, Robert Wilson, Jonathan Robertson, Joanna Watson, Misba Beerahee, Steve C Hughes, Graeme Young, Rebecca Graves, David Hall, Sjoerd van Marle and Roberto Solari

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:14

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Previous studies have established a correlation between vancomycin troughs and nephrotoxicity. However, data are currently lacking regarding the effect of guideline-recommended weight-based dosing on nephrotox...

    Authors: Ronald G Hall II, Kathleen A Hazlewood, Sara D Brouse, Christopher A Giuliano, Krystal K Haase, Chistopher R Frei, Nicolas A Forcade, Todd Bell, Roger J Bedimo and Carlos A Alvarez

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:12

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Antipsychotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), despite their limited efficacy and concerns about safety. The aim of this study was to describ...

    Authors: Maria Gustafsson, Stig Karlsson and Hugo Lövheim

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:10

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Drugs not commonly considered to be cardioactive agents may cause prolongation of the QT interval with resultant torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. This form of drug toxicity often causes cardia...

    Authors: Vincenzo Lariccia, Alessandra Moraca, Marco Marini, Annamaria Assunta Nasti, Ilaria Battistoni, Salvatore Amoroso and Gian Piero Perna

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:8

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, prima...

    Authors: Suzanne Dunne, Bill Shannon, Colum Dunne and Walter Cullen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:1

    Content type: Review

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  39. The new European pharmacovigilance legislation has been suggested as marking the beginning of a new chapter in drug safety, making patients an important part of pharmacovigilance. In Sweden since 2008 it has b...

    Authors: Andreas Vilhelmsson, Tommy Svensson, Anna Meeuwisse and Anders Carlsten

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:19

    Content type: Research article

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