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Toxicology

This section considers submissions that focus on pharmaceutical, molecular and regulatory toxicology.

Page 1 of 3

  1. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is a quaternary ammonium compound that is both a base corrosive and a cholinergic agonist, and it is widely used in the photoelectric and semiconductor industries. It cause...

    Authors: Chih-Kang Huang, Alan H. Hall, Ming-Ling Wu, Chen-Chang Yang, Dong-Zong Hung, Yan-Chiao Mao and Jou-Fang Deng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Although two novel synthesized compounds with tri-aryl structures; 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazole (A) and 3,5-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol...

    Authors: Tayebeh Afsharirad, Raheleh Tahmasvand, Mohsen Amini, Bahram Daraei and Mona Salimi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Whilst cannabis commercialization is occurring rapidly guided by highly individualistic public narratives, evidence that all congenital anomalies (CA) increase alongside cannabis use in Canada, a link with 21 ...

    Authors: Albert Stuart Reece and Gary Kenneth Hulse

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Cisplatin is an important drug in the treatment of various Cancers. However, this drug causes nephrotoxicity that is linked to electrolyte derangement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of elect...

    Authors: Omary M. S. Minzi, Tatu E. Lyimo, Francis F. Furia, Alphonce I. Marealle, Manase Kilonzi, George M. Bwire and Christina Malichewe

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Gene expression profile analysis on mammalian cell lines and animal models after exposure to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been investigated in several studies in recent years. Microarray analysis provides a...

    Authors: Lei Wang, Carol S. Ringelberg and Bal R. Singh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an essential immunosuppressant in organ transplantation. However, its chronic nephrotoxicity is an obstacle to long allograft survival that has not been overcome. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-...

    Authors: Shinya Morita, Kazunobu Shinoda, Tadashi Yoshida, Masayuki Shimoda, Yoshihiko Kanno, Ryuichi Mizuno, Hidaka Kono, Hiroshi Asanuma, Ken Nakagawa, Kazuo Umezawa and Mototsugu Oya

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Methadone is well known for its long duration of action and propensity for mortality after an overdose. The present research was aimed at evaluating the clinical manifestations and time trends of methadone exp...

    Authors: Omid Mehrpour, Christopher Hoyte, Alireza Amirabadizadeh and Jeffrey Brent

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The success rate of rescue is extremely low in acute paraquat poisoning. This study aimed to assess whether strengthened hemoperfusion (SHP) combined with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) improves p...

    Authors: An-bao Chen, Fang Li, E-mu Di, Xiao Zhang, Qun-yuan Zhao and Jing Wen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In acute intoxication, carbamazepine concentration above 40 mcg/ml is associated with a risk of severe neurological consequences, including depressed consciousness, respiratory depression, cardiac conduction d...

    Authors: Ayala Hirsch, Maor Wanounou, Amichai Perlman, Bruria Hirsh-Raccah and Mordechai Muszkat

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Progressive bone pain and fracture and abnormal positron emission tomography combined with a computed tomography are main reasons for the oncologists suspecting bone tumor. During the patient’s medical treatme...

    Authors: Qian Xiang, Zhiyan Liu, Yanyan Yu, Hanxu Zhang, Qiufen Xie, Guangyan Mu, Jianhua Zhang, Xinan Cen and Yimin Cui

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:43

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Population-based studies suggest increasing rates of concurrent use of vaping products that contain either nicotine or cannabinoids. The aim of this pilot study was to test in vitro the acute inhalation toxici...

    Authors: Noel J. Leigh and Maciej L. Goniewicz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation in the liver, due to a chronic injury, and subsequent alteration of the normal architecture of the liver. Even though there is a huge effort to...

    Authors: Abraham Nigussie Mekuria, Michael N. Routledge, Yun Yun Gong and Mekonnen Sisay

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Air pollution increases the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis (AS) is the pathological basis of most CVD, and the progression of atherosclerosis and the increase of fragi...

    Authors: Siqi Wang, Feifei Wang, Lixin Yang, Qin Li, Yao Huang, Zhiyuan Cheng, Hongqian Chu, Yiming Song, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao and Xuetao Wei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Living organisms are frequently exposed to more than one xenobiotic at a time either by ingestion of contaminated food/fodder or due to house-hold practices, occupational hazards or through environment. These ...

    Authors: Rajesh Mandil, Atul Prakash, Anu Rahal, S. P. Singh, Deepak Sharma, Rahul Kumar and Satish Kumar Garg

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:29

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The present study aimed to develop and validate a rapid, selective, and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry separation method for the simultaneous determination of the...

    Authors: Mengchun Chen, Wei Sun, Zhe Wang, Chengke Huang, Guoxin Hu, Yijie Chen and Ledan Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:27

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In 2016, in a lead poisoning outbreak in Iran, physicians reported thousands of opium users who presented to emergency departments (EDs) with intractable severe abdominal pain which did not respond to any narc...

    Authors: Masoud Mayel, Saleh Hamzeh, Salile Shahabi Rabori, Sareh Ghasemirad, Nasim Zamani and Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Hen eggs contaminated with lead can be harmful to the health of children and adults. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if sub-chronic treatment with ascorbic acid can reduce lead levels in t...

    Authors: Ramzi Shawahna, Ahed Zyoud, Elaf Haj Yahia, Rahma Sulieman, Abeer Haddad, Mohammad Makhlof, Bilal Abu-Hilal, Ghulam Murtaza and Hikmat Hilal

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:17

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Leakage following colorectal anastomosis surgery causes various complications associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in pediatric patients. It might be caused by the use of non-steroidal anti...

    Authors: Eko Purnomo, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih, Nunik Agustriani and Gunadi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:6

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit SGLT2, which is expressed in the proximal renal tubule, and thus reduce blood glucose levels by enabling the urinary excretion of excess glucose. SGLT2...

    Authors: Miho Nakamura, Junya Nakade, Tadashi Toyama, Masaki Okajima and Takumi Taniguchi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:5

    Content type: Case report

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  20. For many decades, the sting of Samsun ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis) has been a serious clinical challenge for the people living in some of the major Middle East and Asian countries. In the present study, the th...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Alhazza, Hossam Ebaid, Bahaa Abdel-Salam, Jameel H. Al-Tamimi, Iftekhar Hassan, Ahmed M. Rady and Ashraf M. A. Mashaly

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:84

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Anti-neoplastic agents are widely used in the treatment of cancer and some non-neoplastic diseases. These drugs have been proved to be carcinogens, teratogens, and mutagens. Concern exists regarding the possib...

    Authors: Maral Ramazani, Razieh Pourahmad Jaktaji, Farshad H. Shirazi, Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Ahmad Salimi and Jalal Pourahmad

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:74

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Timolol Maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker that is commonly used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Despite its topical administration, ophthalmic timolol enters systemic circulation and produces a ...

    Authors: Zhuoying Wang, Ian Denys, Feng Chen, Lijie Cai, Xuecui Wang, Daniel R. Kapusta, Yongliang Lv and Juan Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:73

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Dexmedetomidine was proved to mitigate bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity but mechanism of this ability is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiot...

    Authors: Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin, Tingting Lin, Xixi Cai, Linmin Pan, Shi Wang, Yaoyao Cai and Hongfei Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:70

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Colchicine is a clinical medicine used for relief from gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Because of its toxic effects, intravenous injection of colchicine has been banned, but it is still widely administe...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Yingjun Xie, Minyi Yan, Qianying Pan, Yi Liang and Xiaofang Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  25. MDMA causes serotonin (5-HT) syndrome immediately after administration and serotonergic injury in a few days or weeks. However, a serotonin syndrome is not always followed by serotonergic injury, indicating di...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Shokry, Connor J. Shields, John J. Callanan, Zhiyuan Ma and Rui Tao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:47

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is a widely used chemical that has adverse effects on animal development and reproduction. The current research aimed to evaluate the effect of BPA on the in vitro ma...

    Authors: Qian Li and Zhenjun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:43

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Data is limited on comparison of acute and chronic methotrexate (MTX) poisoning. Methotrexate is an anti-folate drug that may be prescribed in some malignant or chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the ...

    Authors: Arman Ahmadzadeh, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Seyed Kaveh Hadeiy and Parinaz Parhizgar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:39

    Content type: Research article

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  28. This study aimed to examine femoral bone microstructure of mice after single and simultaneous administration to acrylamide and ethanol since both substances are often consumed separately and/or together by hum...

    Authors: Anna Sarocka, Veronika Kovacova, Radoslav Omelka, Birgit Grosskopf, Edyta Kapusta, Zofia Goc, Grzegorz Formicki and Monika Martiniakova

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:38

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Concern about intoxication by e-liquid is growing as calls to poison control centers have increased since their introduction. Only three cases of intoxication by injection have been reported worldwide. Our cas...

    Authors: Mhedi Belkoniene, Jennifer Socquet, Denise Njemba-Freiburghaus and Cyril Pellaton

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:28

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, with an increasing incidence. Despite the fact that systematic chemotherapy with a doxorubicin provides only marginal improvements in surv...

    Authors: Agnieszka Korga, Marta Ostrowska, Aleksandra Jozefczyk, Magdalena Iwan, Rafal Wojcik, Grazyna Zgorka, Mariola Herbet, Gemma Gomez Vilarrubla and Jaroslaw Dudka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:22

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a common emergency worldwide, which carries high morbidity and mortality. Some patients who recover from the insult of acute carbon monoxide toxicity may later develop delayed neur...

    Authors: Prabhashini Kumarihamy, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kularatne, Manoji Pathirage, Wasala Mudiyanselage Sujeewa Nilanthi Gunaratne and Roshita Waduge

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:17

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is a public health problem in many regions of Colombia. This study aimed to estimate the burden of PQ poisoning in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Authors: Jefferson Antonio Buendía, Gabriel Jaime Restrepo Chavarriaga and Andrés F. Zuluaga

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:11

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Levels of toxic metal exposure in indigenous inhabitants are key bioindicators of the severity of environmental contamination. This study measured the seasonal variation of heavy metals and metallothionein (MT...

    Authors: Ai Yin Sow, Ahmad Ismail, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Mohammad Noor Amal and Kamarul Hambali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:8

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Fluoroquinolones are among the most frequently utilized antibacterial agents in developing countries like Ethiopia. Ciprofloxacin has become the most prescribed drug within this class and remains as one of the...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tewodros Tesfa, Zerihun Ataro, Dadi Marami, Habtamu Mitiku, Birhanu Motbaynor and Zelalem Teklemariam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:86

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index. Even minor overdoses must be treated in-hospital due to the risk of severe hypotension and bradycardia. We aimed to d...

    Authors: Mikkel B. Christensen, Kasper M. Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Salam Al-Gibouri, Espen Jimenez-Solem, Kim P. Dalhoff, Tonny S. Petersen and Jon T. Andersen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:78

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Oxidative stress is one potential mechanism that explain the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling process. However, no study has compared different myocardial products of macromolecule oxidation aft...

    Authors: Maria Angélica Martins Lourenço, Mariana Gobbo Braz, Aline Garcia Aun, Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Elisa Moya Kazmarek, Tatiana Fernanda Bachiega, Silmeia Garcia Zanati, Paula Schmidt Azevedo, Bertha Furlan Polegato, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva, Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff and Marcos Ferreira Minicucci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:74

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Acute cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning, including organophosphate and carbamate poisoning, is a crucial problem in developing countries. Acute intoxication results in a cholinergic crisis, neurological ...

    Authors: Min-Chun Chuang, Chih-Hao Chang, Chung Shu Lee, Shih-Hong Li, Ching-Chung Hsiao, Yueh-Fu Fang and Meng-Jer Hsieh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:72

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Colchicine is a natural alkaloid that is mainly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Effective and toxic doses are very similar, but case reports of higher colchicine doses inducing acute toxicosis...

    Authors: Hongzhen Zhong, Zhiqing Zhong, Hongyan Li, Tianbiao Zhou and Weiji Xie

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:69

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. The misconception about dietary supplements being safe has led many into the in-patient wards. Cellgevity® (CGV) is a Max International premiere antioxidant supplement formula used by a large population. This ...

    Authors: O. Awodele, W. A. Badru, A. A. Busari, O. E. Kale, T. B. Ajayi, R. O. Udeh and P. M. Emeka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:68

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Nanoparticles are widely utilized in many products such as cosmetics and sunscreens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (HSP) on nano zinc oxide particles (nZnO) induced oxid...

    Authors: Sabah Ansar, Manal Abudawood, Amal S. A. Alaraj and Sherifa S. Hamed

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:65

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few public...

    Authors: Aleksandra Świderska, Marek Wiśniewski, Marek Wiergowski, Anna Krakowiak and Jacek Sein Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:62

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. Astragaloside IV is one of the major compounds of Astragalus membrana...

    Authors: Chunlan Ji, Yueming Luo, Chuan Zou, Lihua Huang, Ruimin Tian and Zhaoyu Lu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:53

    Content type: Research article

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  43. It is an established fact that humans and animals are exposed to more than one chemical concurrently from various sources such as food, air and water. In the past, much emphasis was laid on evaluating the toxi...

    Authors: Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina and Shilpa Sood

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:48

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) detected in human cord blood and milk. NP exposure in developmental periods results in hyperadrenalism and increasing 11β-hydroxysteroid...

    Authors: Ling-Ling Chang, Wan-Song Alfred Wun and Paulus S. Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:45

    Content type: Research article

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