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  1. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antitumor agent, but its clinical usage is limited due to adverse cardiotoxic effects. Several compounds have been studied to reduce DOX cardiotoxicity to improve its therapeu...

    Authors: Maryam Shekari, Narges Khalilian Gortany, Mina Khalilzadeh, Alireza Abdollahi, Homanaz Ghafari, Ahmad Reza Dehpour and Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:32
  2. Estrogen is involved in the pathogenesis of breast and gynecological cancers. Regular use of aspirin reduces estrogen levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspirin on estrogen levels in pos...

    Authors: Mohammad Bagher Oghazian, Nooshin Shirzad, Mahdi Ahadi, Shalaleh Eivazi Adli, Samaneh Mollazadeh and Mania Radfar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:31
  3. Adverse drug events (ADEs) are an important public health problem with considerable clinical and economic costs. However there are limited studies of ADE incidence in adult inpatients in low-income countries, ...

    Authors: Teketel Alemu Ersulo, Mengist Awoke Yizengaw and Behailu Terefe Tesfaye
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:30
  4. Thioacetamide (TAA) is used in various fields, such as synthetic drugs, organic chemical synthesis, and materials chemistry. TAA is mainly used to establish animal liver injury models and other organ damage mo...

    Authors: Xiaoli Jin, Yang Li, Jianghua Li, Linyan Cheng, Yetao Yao, Hao Shen, Bili Wang, Jun Ren, Hang Ying and Jian Xu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:29
  5. The use of chemical pesticides in developing countries like Bangladesh and their impacts on human health and food security is a global concern. Bangladesh is an agricultural dependent country for the growing p...

    Authors: Amir Hossan Shaikat, Shahneaz Ali Khan, Mohammed Ashif Imtiaz, Md Ridoan Pasha, Jabin Sultana, Arfanul Saif and Mohammad Rashedul Alam
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:28
  6. The main causes of lung cancer are smoking, environmental pollution and genetic susceptibility. It is an indisputable fact that PAHs are related to lung cancer, and benzo(a) pyrene is a representative of PAHs....

    Authors: Mengdi Zhang, Yuxia Hu, Fan Yang, Jingwen Zhang, Jianxin Zhang, Wanjia Yu, Minjie Wang, Xiaoli Lv, Jun Li, Tuya Bai and Fuhou Chang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:26
  7. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) can alter diurnal rhythms including those for innate lymphoid cell numbers, cytokine and hormone levels, and feeding behaviors. Because immune responses and an...

    Authors: Christine L. Foxx, Madeline R. Nagy, Aspen E. King, Dreycey Albin and Gregory K. DeKrey
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:25
  8. Inflammation plays a major role in the pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and the acute lung injury (ALI) diseases. The common feature of these complications is the dysfunction of pulmonary microvascular endo...

    Authors: Huanlong Liu, Zhenhua Pan, Xindi Ma, Junru Cui, Juan Gao, Qingfeng Miao, Zhongning Zhu, Xueyan Chen and Suwen Su
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:24
  9. The mixing step after medication addition to the infusion bag is frequently omitted during the preparation of drug infusions. However, the importance of mixing when preparing antibiotic infusions is still unkn...

    Authors: Ina Barzel, Janique Gabriëlle Jessurun, Soma Bahmany, Paul Hugo Marie van der Kuy, Birgit Catharina Peter Koch and Nicole Geertruida Maria Hunfeld
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:22

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:27

  10. Hydroquinone (HQ) is a phenolic metabolite of benzene with a potential risk for hematological disorders and hematotoxicity in humans. In the present study, an integrative analysis of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA ...

    Authors: Chun-Hong Yu, Shui-Qing Yang, Lei Li, Yu Xin, Fang Zhang, Xiao-Fan Liu and Zong-Chun Yi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:20
  11. Lung injury elicited by respiratory exposure to humidifier disinfectants (HDs) is known as HD-associated lung injury (HDLI). Current elucidation of the molecular mechanisms related to HDLI is mostly restricted...

    Authors: Hong Lee, Sang Hoon Jeong, Hyejin Lee, Cherry Kim, Yoon Jeong Nam, Ja Young Kang, Myeong Ok Song, Jin Young Choi, Jaeyoung Kim, Eun-Kee Park, Yong-Wook Baek and Ju-Han Lee
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:19
  12. Propofol and dexmedetomidine (DEX) are widely used in general anesthesia, and exert toxic and protective effects on hippocampal neurons, respectively. The study sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms o...

    Authors: Zong Chen, Yong Ding, Ying Zeng, Xue-Ping Zhang and Jian-Yan Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:18
  13. Methadone is a synthetic opioid mostly used for detoxification therapy, as its use increases; the possibility for methadone-induced cardiotoxicity may rise. The aim of this study was to determine the associati...

    Authors: Hasan Shemirani, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Azadeh Davoudian Dehkordi and Farzad Gheshlaghi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:17
  14. Arsenic, existing ubiquitously in soil, drinking water, or food, is well known to be an environmental pollutants concerned by European Food Safety Authority. Lentinan, a beta-1,6;1,3-glucan extracts from Lentinus...

    Authors: Yuan Yang, Shuang Song, Yuanyuan Nie, Rong Chen and Peng Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:16
  15. Arsenic metabolism enzymes can affect the toxic effects of arsenic. However, the effects of different genders on the metabolites and metabolic enzymes in liver arsenic metabolism is still unclear. This study a...

    Authors: Maihaba Muhetaer, Mei Yang, Rongxiang Xia, Yuanyan Lai and Jun Wu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:15
  16. Digoxin is an important treatment option for reducing the ventricular rate in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). Digoxin has a narrow therapeutic window and large interindividual va...

    Authors: Toshinori Hirai, Hidefumi Kasai, Miyoko Naganuma, Nobuhisa Hagiwara and Tsuyoshi Shiga
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:14
  17. RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes (DNAzymes) are catalytic deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that have become a promising new class of gene suppressors by binding and cleaving target mRNA. This study investigated whet...

    Authors: Zhen Yu, Jun Guo, Tao Meng, Lei Ge, Lin Liu, Haijiang Wang and Xinhui Yang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:13
  18. Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy and the eleventh most common cancer worldwide. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a first-line antimalarial drug, has been found to have potent antitumo...

    Authors: Linfan Xiao, Cangcang Xu, Peiyu Lin, Lingli Mu and Xiaoping Yang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:10
  19. This study aimed to evaluate incidence risk and adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease among short-term users of acid-suppressants in South Korea.

    Authors: Jimyung Park, Seng Chan You, Jaehyeong Cho, Chan Hyuk Park, Woon Geon Shin, Rae Woong Park and Seung In Seo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:9
  20. Patients with liver diseases often have some form of anemia. Hematological dyscrasias are known side effects of antipsychotic drug medication and the occurrence of agranulocytosis under clozapine is well descr...

    Authors: Marie-Luise Bouvier, Karin Fehsel, Andrea Schmitt, Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner, Wolfgang Gaebel and Martina von Wilmsdorff
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:8
  21. Since an introduction of an ICH guidance in 2005, no new drugs were withdrawn from the market because of the causation of Torsade de Pointes (TdP). However, the risk of TdP is still a concern for marketed drug...

    Authors: Laura Krumpholz, Barbara Wiśniowska and Sebastian Polak
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:7

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:11

  22. FKB327 has been developed as a biosimilar of the adalimumab reference product (RP). We compared the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and immunogenicity of FKB327 with those of the adalimumab RP after a single do...

    Authors: Takuma Yonemura, Rie Yazawa, Miwa Haranaka, Kazuki Kawakami, Masayuki Takanuma, Takumi Kanzo, Dimitris Stefanidis and Yasumasa Arai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:6
  23. The United Kingdom guideline for acute paracetamol overdose has recommended the use of ‘100-treatment line’. Emergency medical centers in some developing countries lack the resources for timely reporting of pa...

    Authors: Hyun Ho Jeong, Kyungman Cha, Kyoung Ho Choi and Byung Hak So
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:5
  24. Pregabalin (PGB) was approved as new anti-epileptic drugs with little information about its teratogenic effect.

    Authors: Omnia I. Ismail, Eman S. Shaltout, Nora Z. Abdellah, Diab F. Hetta, Wael M. A. Abd El-Ghani, Lobna A. Abdelzaher, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed Mahmoud, Asmaa M. Hasan, Noha A. Rashed and Noha Esmael Ebrahem
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:4
  25. Up-and-down procedure (UDP) was recommended to replace traditional acute toxicity methods. However, it was limited due to the long experimental period (20–42 days). To improve UDP, an improved UDP method (iUDP...

    Authors: Yan-Yu Zhang, Yu-Feng Huang, Jie Liang and Hua Zhou
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:3
  26. Py-mulin is a new pleuromutilin derivative with potent antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo, suggesting this compound may lead to a promising antibacterial drug after further development. The present ...

    Authors: Yuan Fan, Yunxing Fu, Yuhang Zhou, Yu Liu, Baocheng Hao and Ruofeng Shang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:2
  27. Pain relief remains a major subject of inadequately met need of patients. Therapeutic agents designed to treat pain and inflammation so far have low to moderate efficiencies with significant untoward side effe...

    Authors: Julius T. Dongdem, Gideon K. Helegbe, Kwame Opare-Asamoah, Cletus A. Wezena and Augustine Ocloo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:1
  28. Despite significant advancements in breast cancer therapy, novel drugs with lower side effects are still being demanded. In this regard, we investigated the anti-cancer features of verbascoside in 4 T1 mouse m...

    Authors: Atena Daneshforouz, Samad Nazemi, Omid Gholami, Marzieh Kafami and Bahareh Amin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:72
  29. Leishmania aethiopica (L. aethiopica) is responsible for different forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia. Treatment heavily depends on limited drugs, together with drawbacks like toxicity and microbia...

    Authors: Markos Tadele, Solomon M. Abay, Peter Asaga, Eyasu Makonnen and Asrat Hailu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:71
  30. Gastric cancer is a common gastrointestinal cancer and currently has the third-highest mortality rate. Research shows that the natural compound narciclasine has a variety of biological activities. The present ...

    Authors: Yunfeng Yuan, Xue He, Xiang Li, Yan Liu, Yueliang Tang, Huiming Deng and Xinyuan Shi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:70
  31. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most disabling neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) and/or ritualized me...

    Authors: Fatemeh Hadi, Shayan Kashefinejad, Leila Kamalzadeh, Saba Hoobehfekr and Mohammadreza Shalbafan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:69
  32. Ovarian cancer is the world’s dreaded disease and its prevalence is expanding globally. The study of integrated molecular networks is crucial for the basic mechanism of cancer cells and their progression. Duri...

    Authors: Suchitra Maheswari Ajjarapu, Apoorv Tiwari, Gohar Taj, Dev Bukhsh Singh, Sakshi Singh and Sundip Kumar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:68
  33. Identification of internationally comparable indicators of medicines use are important for a country to implement strategies and regulations to improve usage of medicines. Sri Lanka established a new National ...

    Authors: P. Galappatthy, P. Ranasinghe, C. K. Liyanage, M. S. Wijayabandara, S. Mythily and R. L. Jayakody
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:67
  34. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the most widely used immunosuppressive drug in transplantation and for autoimmune diseases. Unfortunately, more than 30% of patients experience a typical gastrointestinal adverse eff...

    Authors: Manon Jardou, Quentin Provost, Clarisse Brossier, Émilie Pinault, François-Ludovic Sauvage and Roland Lawson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:66
  35. The prevalence and characteristics of drug-related problems (DRPs) and factors associated with the occurrence of DRPs in the neurology unit in China remain unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence...

    Authors: Pengpeng Liu, Guangyao Li, Mei Han and Chao Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:65
  36. Dopamine D2 receptor agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline, are notable medications in the treatment of Parkinsonism, hyperprolactinemia, and hyperglycemia. An affiliation was found between the initiation of my...

    Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Fouad Shalaby, Hekma A. Abd El Latif, Mohamed El Yamani, May Ahmed Galal, Sherifa Kamal, Ikhlas Sindi and Raneem Masaood
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:64
  37. In clinical practice, the risk factors for pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-related hand-foot syndrome remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with hand-foot syndr...

    Authors: Yanfang Zhao, Wenjia Su, Guohua Liang, Xiaoyu Shan, Weiwei Ma, Dabei Tang, Liru Li, Xingjian Niu, Shu Zhao, Qingyuan Zhang and Wenhui Zhao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:63
  38. Cell pyroptosis has been characterized by cell swelling and pro-inflammatory factors release to aggravate inflammatory reaction., such as interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interlukin18 (IL-18). However, the functi...

    Authors: Jin Huang, Pingsheng Fan, Miao Liu, Chengtao Weng, Gaofei Fan, Tengyue Zhang, Xiaohong Duan, Yang Wu, Lili Tang, Guohong Yang and Yabei Liu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:62
  39. The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in thelate 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease ...

    Authors: Maral Aminpour, Williams Ernesto Miranda Delgado, Soren Wacker, Sergey Noskov, Michael Houghton, D. Lorne J. Tyrrell and Jack A. Tuszynski
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:61
  40. This study aims to establish an in vitro monitoring approach to evaluate the pesticide exposures. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of three different body fluids of rats to the respective corresponding tissue...

    Authors: Yu-Jie Liang, Ding-Xin Long, Ming-Yuan Xu, Hui-Ping Wang, Ying-Jian Sun and Yi-Jun Wu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:60
  41. Tramadol is a widely used synthetic opioid for moderate to severe pain. Some studies have shown that tramadol can increase oxidative stress in different tissues of the body. Quercetin is also a substance with ...

    Authors: Samaneh Nakhaee, Khadijeh Farrokhfall, Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam, Mohsen Foadoddini, Masoumeh Askari and Omid Mehrpour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:59
  42. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Novel Coronavirus named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared Pandemic by The World Health Organization (WHO) and a Public Health...

    Authors: Supangat, Elly Nurus Sakinah, Muhammad Yuda Nugraha, Tegar Syaiful Qodar, Bagus Wahyu Mulyono and Achmad Ilham Tohari
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:58
  43. Pharmacokinetics (PK) is the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Some drugs undergo zero-order kinetics (ethyl alcohol), first order kinetics (piroxicam) and mixed ...

    Authors: Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:57
  44. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the pediatric population may differ in types and frequencies compared to other populations. Respective studies analyzing ADR reports referring to children have already been per...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Sarah Leitzen, Irmgard Toni, Julia Stingl, M. Schulz, Matthias Schmid, Antje Neubert and Bernhardt Sachs
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:56
  45. Sunitinib is known to cause cardiotoxicity in clinical settings. However, among sunitinib-treated patients experiencing adverse cardiac events, decreased cardiac function was reportedly reversible in > 50% of ...

    Authors: Toshikatsu Matsui and Tadahiro Shinozawa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:55
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