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  1. Timolol Maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker that is commonly used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Despite its topical administration, ophthalmic timolol enters systemic circulation and produces a ...

    Authors: Zhuoying Wang, Ian Denys, Feng Chen, Lijie Cai, Xuecui Wang, Daniel R. Kapusta, Yongliang Lv and Juan Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:73

    Content type: Case report

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  2. As a new generation antihistamine, fexofenadine has been widely used in allergic diseases. However, there is still a lack of collective evidence regarding the antihistamine effects and safety profiles of fexof...

    Authors: Cheng-zhi Huang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Jian Wang, Yue Luo and Hua Peng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Dexmedetomidine was proved to mitigate bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity but mechanism of this ability is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiot...

    Authors: Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin, Tingting Lin, Xixi Cai, Linmin Pan, Shi Wang, Yaoyao Cai and Hongfei Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:70

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Ability to manage urges to smoke is fundamental to maximizing the chances of success in smoking cessation. Previous studies have linked a higher dose of nicotine in nicotine replacement therapy to a higher suc...

    Authors: Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Roland Perfekt, Elin Hall and Holger Kraiczi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Eribulin improves survival in pre-treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). However, limited data exist on co-morbidities and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy. The purpose of this study was to r...

    Authors: Milana Bergamino Sirvén, Adela Fernández-Ortega, Agostina Stradella, Idoia Morilla, Catalina Falo, Silvia Vázquez, Roser Castany, Rafael Villanueva, Sabela Recalde, Valentí Navarro Pérez, Miguel Gil-Gil and Sonia Pernas

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, although involving two different tumour suppressor genes (neurofibromin and merlin, respectively), are both cancer predisposition syndromes that disproportionately affect cells of ne...

    Authors: Yu-chi Shen, Caroline Arellano-Garcia, Rosa E. Menjivar, Ethan M. Jewett, Wolfgang Dohle, Sofiia Karchugina, Jonathan Chernoff, Barry V. L. Potter and Kate F. Barald

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Colchicine is a clinical medicine used for relief from gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Because of its toxic effects, intravenous injection of colchicine has been banned, but it is still widely administe...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Yingjun Xie, Minyi Yan, Qianying Pan, Yi Liang and Xiaofang Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, lead...

    Authors: Milo Gatti, Emanuel Raschi and Fabrizio De Ponti

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:65

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS. ART regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment p...

    Authors: Zerihun Ataro, Birhanu Motbaynor, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Mekonnen Sisay, Tewodros Tesfa, Habtamu Mitiku, Dadi Marami, Zelalem Teklemariam and Zewdneh Shewamene

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:63

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Cardiovascular events (CVEs) was considered as one of the primary cause to reduce the quality of life in breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) treatment, which has not been sufficiently addres...

    Authors: Yang He, Jianhua Zhang, Guofang Shen, Lin Liu, Qingwei Zhao, Xiaoyang Lu, Hongyu Yang and Dongsheng Hong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:62

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In recent years, targeted therapy has received widespread attention. Among these therapies, anti-angiogenic targeted drugs have become one of the hotspots of research. Apatinib is a novel oral small molecule a...

    Authors: Guohui Liu, Chunbo Wang, Yunlong He and Mingyan E

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting practices by health care professionals remain poor. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are perceived as safe; however, they can also cause ADRs. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Josipa Bukic, Doris Rusic, Petar Mas, Deni Karabatic, Josko Bozic, Ana Seselja Perisin, Dario Leskur, Darko Krnic, Sinisa Tomic and Darko Modun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Studies have indicated that changed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in epithelial cells from the kidney could affect the renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). As Angiotensin II (An...

    Authors: Hao Huang, Yanqin Fan, Zhao Gao, Wei Wang, Ning Shao, Lu Zhang, Yingjie Yang, Weifang Zhu, Zhaowei Chen, Jijia Hu and Guohua Ding

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:59

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Among adipose-derived factors, adipocytokines play roles as hormones and signaling mediators for apoptotic pathway. Among of them, vaspin, regulates the metabolism of adipose tissue itself as an endocrine orga...

    Authors: Magdalena Skonieczna, Dorota Hudy, Tomasz Hejmo, Rafal J. Buldak, Małgorzata Adamiec and Michal Kukla

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Poncirin is flavanone derivative (isolated from Poncirus trifoliata) with known pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-colitic. The present study aimed to exp...

    Authors: Ruqayya Afridi, Ashraf Ullah Khan, Sidra Khalid, Bushra Shal, Hina Rasheed, Muhammad Zia Ullah, Omer Shehzad, Yeong Shik Kim and Salman Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:57

    Content type: Research article

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  16. There are evidences that chlorogenic acid (CGA) has antidepressant effects, however the underlying molecular mechanism has not been well understood. The aim of the study was to explore the neuroprotective effe...

    Authors: Xiaowen Shi, Nian Zhou, Jieyi Cheng, Xunlong Shi, Hai Huang, Mingmei Zhou and Haiyan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Pharmaceutical opioid analgesic use continues to rise and is associated with potentially preventable harm including hospitalisation for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spatial detection of opioid-related ADRs c...

    Authors: Wei Du, Shanley Chong, Andrew J. McLachlan, Lan Luo, Nicholas Glasgow and Danijela Gnjidic

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The investigation of food-drug and plant-drug interactions has become increasingly important. In case of antibiotics, it is essential to achieve and maintain a plasma concentration sufficient for the antimicro...

    Authors: Tivadar Kiss, Zoltán Timár, Andrea Szabó, Anita Lukács, Viktória Velky, Gábor Oszlánczi, Edina Horváth, István Takács, István Zupkó and Dezső Csupor

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:54

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Apixaban effectively lowers the risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Systemic exposure to a given apixaban dose depends on multiple clearance pathway...

    Authors: Andrea Huppertz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Chris Dumschat, Kathrin I. Foerster, Jürgen Burhenne, Johanna Weiss, David Czock, Jan C. Purrucker, Timolaos Rizos and Walter E. Haefeli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:53

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for psychotic disorders provide advantages in treatment compliance, but data on their use in pregnancy are very limited. We present a clinical case of aripiprazole L...

    Authors: Isabel Ballester-Gracia, Miriam Pérez-Almarcha, Ana Galvez-Llompart and Miguel Hernandez-Viadel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:52

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been attributed to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin which adversely affect disease outcome leading to increased cancer related morbidity. The clin...

    Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Fazal Subhan, Nisar Ahmad and Robert D. E. Sewell

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:51

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Tigecycline, the first glycylcycline-class drug, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. We describe a case of sustained and severe hypoglycemia in a patient ...

    Authors: Yixin Chen, Lin Li, Nan Zhang and Hong Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:50

    Content type: Case report

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  23. The progress of mass, community-directed, treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control was disrupted by severe adverse effects (SAE) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study aimed at...

    Authors: Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Daniel Muteba, Paul Mansiangi, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga and Yves Coppieters

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:49

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis enzyme inhibitors are the mainstays of pharmacological treatment. Unfortunately, they...

    Authors: Megan McGrath, Alissa Hofmann and Douglas E. Raines

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:48

    Content type: Research article

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  25. MDMA causes serotonin (5-HT) syndrome immediately after administration and serotonergic injury in a few days or weeks. However, a serotonin syndrome is not always followed by serotonergic injury, indicating di...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Shokry, Connor J. Shields, John J. Callanan, Zhiyuan Ma and Rui Tao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:47

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a significant health issue affecting Aboriginal Australians. Long-term hearing loss can cause communication problems, educational disadvantage, and social isolation. ...

    Authors: Christine Wigger, Amanda Jane Leach, Jemima Beissbarth, Victor Oguoma, Ruth Lennox, Sandra Nelson, Hemi Patel, Mark Chatfield, Kathy Currie, Harvey Coates, Keith Edwards, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Kim Hare, Paul Torzillo, Steven Tong and Peter Morris

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:46

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Pneumonia patients are usually hospitalized due to severe nature of the disease or for the management of comorbid illnesses or associated symptoms. Such patients are prescribed with multiple medications which ...

    Authors: Sidra Noor, Mohammad Ismail and Zahid Ali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  28. This analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between drug application and mortality rate in Chinese older coronary artery disease (CAD)/chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with and without low g...

    Authors: Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Ping Ye and Leiming Luo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:44

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is a widely used chemical that has adverse effects on animal development and reproduction. The current research aimed to evaluate the effect of BPA on the in vitro ma...

    Authors: Qian Li and Zhenjun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:43

    Content type: Research article

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  30. KCNH family of potassium channels is responsible for diverse physiological functions ranging from the regulation of neuronal excitability and cardiac contraction to the regulation of cancer progression. KCNH c...

    Authors: Ze-Jun Wang, Purushottam B. Tiwari, Aykut Üren and Tinatin I. Brelidze

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:42

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant health burden that increases the risk of adverse events. Currently, there is no validated models to predict risk of mortality among CKD patients experienced advers...

    Authors: Monica Danial, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ong Loke Meng, Yoon Chee Kin and Amer Hayat Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:41

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Data is limited on comparison of acute and chronic methotrexate (MTX) poisoning. Methotrexate is an anti-folate drug that may be prescribed in some malignant or chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the ...

    Authors: Arman Ahmadzadeh, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Seyed Kaveh Hadeiy and Parinaz Parhizgar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:39

    Content type: Research article

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  33. This study aimed to examine femoral bone microstructure of mice after single and simultaneous administration to acrylamide and ethanol since both substances are often consumed separately and/or together by hum...

    Authors: Anna Sarocka, Veronika Kovacova, Radoslav Omelka, Birgit Grosskopf, Edyta Kapusta, Zofia Goc, Grzegorz Formicki and Monika Martiniakova

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:38

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Treatment guidelines suggest either a low-dose or high-dose approach when prescribing amikacin for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM PD), but data supporting the low-dose approach are limited...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Aznar, Theodore K. Marras, Ahmed Said Elshal, Mahtab Mehrabi and Sarah K. Brode

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) present a significant source of adverse drug reactions. Despite being one of the commonly cited risks to patient safety, prevention of DDIs still poses a challenge to healthcare s...

    Authors: Anna Somogyi-Végh, Zsófia Ludányi, Ábel Erdős and Lajos Botz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:36

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Wound infections are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Specifically, surgical site infections are the third most commonly reported nosocomial infections accounting approximat...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Teshager Worku and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:35

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes in clinical settings and to assess its effect modification (heterogeneity) among patients with various medical...

    Authors: Keiko Yamazaki, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Teduka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Yayoi Nishida and Satoshi Asai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:34

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are an emerging threat in this century. Epinecidin-1 is a multi-functional Antimicrobial Peptide (AMP) produced by Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has been shown to ha...

    Authors: Alireza Neshani, Hosna Zare, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eidgahi, Azad Khaledi and Kiarash Ghazvini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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  39. It is an established fact that excess of glucocorticoids could cause the harmful effects, such as suppression on the male reproduction. Although glucocorticoids pharmacologically inhibit the Leydig cell functi...

    Authors: Jingwei Zhang, Guanghui Hu, Bisheng Huang, Dong Zhuo, Yujie Xu, Huitao Li, Xiangcheng Zhan, Ren-Shan Ge and Yunfei Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:32

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are clinically significant dose-related adverse effects associated with second-line anti-tubercular injectables drugs (aminoglycosides and capreomycin) used during intensive phas...

    Authors: Workineh Shibeshi, Anandi N. Sheth, Addisu Admasu, Alemseged Beyene Berha, Zenebe Negash and Getnet Yimer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  41. To investigate the one-year visual and anatomical outcomes of combination therapy with intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

    Authors: Hsin-Yu Weng, Tzu-Lun Huang, Pei-Yao Chang and Jia-Kang Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:29

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Concern about intoxication by e-liquid is growing as calls to poison control centers have increased since their introduction. Only three cases of intoxication by injection have been reported worldwide. Our cas...

    Authors: Mhedi Belkoniene, Jennifer Socquet, Denise Njemba-Freiburghaus and Cyril Pellaton

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:28

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Thromboprophylaxis dosing strategies using enoxaparin in elderly patients with renal disease are limited, while dose adjustments or monitoring of anti-Xa levels are recommended. We sought to evaluate the effic...

    Authors: Nibal Chamoun, Hady Ghanem, Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Christelle Lteif, Hanine Mansour, Hani Dimassi, Richard Zalloum and Georges Ghanem

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:27

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Daptomycin is an important drug used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. A high dose of daptomycin is indicated for an MRSA infection with a minimum inhibitory concen...

    Authors: Yi-Chien Lee, Pao-Yu Chen, Jann-Tay Wang and Shan-Chwen Chang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:25

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Monitoring the safety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in resource-constrained countries such as Eritrea due to their serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was aimed at assessing...

    Authors: Lidya Hagos, Siyoma Fessehaye and Indermeet Singh Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:24

    Content type: Research article

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Reviewer acknowledgments

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