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  1. The gut microbiome, a new organ of the body, can potentially alter the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs through microbial enzymes. However, absorption of orally administered non-antibiotic drugs b...

    Authors: Imran Mukhtar, Haseeb Anwar, Arslan Iftikhar, Heba E. Hashem, Qasim Ali and Farhan Siddique
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:85
  2. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are common but less concerning in clinical practice of time-sensitive situations. We aimed to identify factors associated with a basic common DDI knowledge among an emergency phys...

    Authors: Theerapon Tangsuwanaruk and Borwon Wittayachamnankul
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:84
  3. Toxicological problem associated with herbal medicine is a significant public health problem. Hence, it is necessary to elaborate on the safety of herbal medicine. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is a major active co...

    Authors: Ming-Yan Yang, Ze-Yu Song, Hai-Lin Gan, Mei-Hua Zheng, Qian Liu, Xiang-Ting Meng, Tao Pan, Zhen-Yuan Li, Ruo-Xuan Peng, Ke Liu and Hua-Ying Fan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:83
  4. Ischemia stroke is the leading cause of disability, which is a consequence of vascular occlusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cornin which is isolated from the fruit of Verbena of...

    Authors: Tianchi Lan, Yangyang Xu, Shucui Li, Ning Li, Shuping Zhang and Haibo Zhu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:82
  5. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation regulates the initiation and progression of intracranial aneurysm (IA). Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is suggested to play neuroprotective roles in patients wit...

    Authors: Ze Zhang, Xiue Mu and Xiaohui Zhou
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:81
  6. Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor (LUM-IVA), a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein corrector-potentiator combination, improves lung function and reduces pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in F508d...

    Authors: Karin Yaacoby-Bianu, Zeev Schnapp, Ilana Koren, Anat Ilivitzki, Mohamed Khatib, Nadeem Shorbaji, Michal Shteinberg and Galit Livnat
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:80
  7. Acarbose is one of the optimal drugs for patients with the first diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But what kind of emerging patients has the best therapeutic response to acarbose therapy has never...

    Authors: Rong Zhang, Quanxi Zhao and Rong Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:79
  8. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is known to have protective effects against intestinal and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries; however, its cardioprotective effects against the stunned myoc...

    Authors: Keisuke Omiya, Yosuke Nakadate, Takeshi Oguchi, Tamaki Sato, Toru Matsuoka, Masako Abe, Akiko Kawakami, Takashi Matsukawa and Hiroaki Sato
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:78
  9. Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is the major ER subtype in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Previously we reported phytoestrogen calycosin suppressed liver fibrosis progression and inhibited HSC-T6 cell functions, sug...

    Authors: Yaxin Wang, Canyan Wu, Jiahui Zhou, Haiming Fang and Jiajia Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:77
  10. Inadvertent exposure to furan and Pb is associated with hepatorenal abnormalities in humans and animals. It is perceived that these two chemical species may work in synergy to orchestrate liver and kidney dama...

    Authors: Solomon E. Owumi, Uche O. Arunsi, Omolola M. Oyewumi and Ahmad Altayyar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:76
  11. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation, steatosis, and liver fibrosis. The liver is particularly affected by alterations in lipid metabolism. Our aim was to eva...

    Authors: Janet Sánchez-Quevedo, Emmanuel Ocampo-Rodríguez, Elizabeth Alvarez-Ayala, Anahí Rodríguez-López, Miguel Angel Duarte-Vázquez, Jorge Luis Rosado and Lourdes Rodríguez-Fragoso
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:75
  12. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the liver is a multifactorial condition that happens during transplantation and surgery. The deleterious effects of I/R result from the acute production of reactive oxygen species...

    Authors: Hamidreza Totonchi, Pooneh Mokarram, Saeed Karima, Ramazan Rezaei, Sanaz Dastghaib, Farhad Koohpeyma, Shokoofe Noori and Negar Azarpira
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:74
  13. Medications currently recommended for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) usually relieve the severity of symptoms by as much as 20–30%, and satisfactory treatment is obtained in 40–60% of pat...

    Authors: Ala Ghobadian, Saba Mokhtari, Behnam Shariati, Leila Kamalzadeh, Mohsen Shati, Mehrdad Eftekhar Ardebili, Masoomeh Yarahmadi and Mohammadreza Shalbafan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:73
  14. Mushroom poisoning can cause gastrointestinal, renal, and hepatic symptoms and even death. This descriptive study examined the demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of patients with fungal poisoning, ...

    Authors: Maryam Janatolmakan, Mohammad Rouhi Ganji, Touraj Ahmadi-Jouybari, Shahab Rezaeian, Mahnaz Ghowsi and Alireza Khatony
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:72
  15. The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a filter for most medications and blocks their passage into the brain. More effective drug delivery strategies are urgently needed to transport medications into the brain. This...

    Authors: Heba M. Fahmy, Mostafa M. Ahmed, Ayman S. Mohamed, Engy Shams-Eldin, Taiseer M. Abd El-Daim, Amena S. El-Feky, Amira B. Mustafa, Mai W. Abd Alrahman, Faten F. Mohammed and Mohamed M. Fathy
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:71
  16. Although various pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available for the chronic low back pain (CLBP), there is no consensus on the best optimal treatment for this condition. This study aimed t...

    Authors: Seyed Mani Mahdavi, Behnam Shariati, Mohammadreza Shalbafan, Vahid Rashedi, Masoomeh Yarahmadi, Alireza Ghaznavi and Shayan Amiri
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:70
  17. Hypolipidemic agents have been shown to be helpful in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Most often, statins are prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia. There are a number of statins a...

    Authors: Ali AlMuhsin, Abdul Ahad, Yousef A. Bin Jardan, Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Khalid M. Alkharfy and Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:69
  18. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Omid Mehrpour, Farhad Saeedi, Christopher Hoyte, Foster Goss and Farshad M. Shirazi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:68

    The original article was published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:49

  19. Paraquat is a non-selective herbicide that causes severe tissue damage in various organs including the liver and kidney. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of the liver and kidney injury in patie...

    Authors: Farzad Gheshlaghi, Jamileh Haghirzavareh, Anselm Wong, Parastoo Golshiri, Shayan Gheshlaghi and Nastaran Eizadi-Mood
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:67
  20. Hyperuricemia is a state in which the serum levels of uric acid (UA) are elevated. This study was to determine the roles of rosuvastatin in fasting blood glucose (FGB) and insulin levels in hyperuricemic rats.

    Authors: Dilidaer Xilifu, Zumulaiti Tuerxun, Buweiayixiemu Nuermaimaiti, Ayinu Aili, Nijiati Rehemu, Huiping Sun and Xiangyang Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:66
  21. Anecdotal experience and studies have shown that most pediatric patients fail to reach target therapeutic vancomycin trough levels (VTLs) and required higher total daily doses (TDD). This retrospective study a...

    Authors: Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Shahzad Rauf, Manoj Rathi, Midhat Khan, Fizzah Naz, Wasif Ahmed Khan, Rahila Ikram and Gul Ambreen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:64
  22. High glucose conditions cause some changes in the vessels of diabetes through the signal transduction pathways. Dexamethasone and other corticosteroids have a wide range of biological effects in immunological ...

    Authors: Ali Akbar Soleimani, Asghar Mohammadi, Ghasem Ghasempour, Borhan Rahimi Abkenar, Nafiseh Shokri and Mohammad Najafi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:63
  23. Cutaneous adverse drug reaction (CADR) is a common problem in clinical medication. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between clinical drug application and CADR occurrence as evidence for preventi...

    Authors: Lei Zheng, Hao-bin Jin, Yu-yao Guan and Jing Yang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:62
  24. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are a promising source of material source for medical regeneration of cartilage. Growth factors, including transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) subfamily members ...

    Authors: Masanari Kuwahara, Yukio Akasaki, Norio Goto, Ichiro Kurakazu, Takuya Sueishi, Masakazu Toya, Taisuke Uchida, Tomoaki Tsutsui, Ryota Hirose, Hidetoshi Tsushima and Yasuharu Nakashima
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:61
  25. Self-medication in students, as educated people, is one of the most important health issues. It is known that inappropriate self-medication is harmful for individuals as it has potential risks, disrupts the dr...

    Authors: Rohaneh Rahimisadegh, Nader Sharifi, Vahid Kohpeima Jahromi, Razieh Zahedi, Zahra Rostayee and Razieh Asadi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:60
  26. Testicular torsion is a pathological condition which needs emergency surgical intervention. However, after surgical reperfusion, oxidative stress factors cause to germ cell apoptosis. The study was planned to ...

    Authors: Iraj Yazdani, Raheleh Majdani, Morteza Ghasemnejad-berenji and Ahmad Reza Dehpour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:59
  27. The present study aims to investigate the newly synthesized organotin (IV) complex (2E, 2′E) dibutylstannanediyl bis (4-(4-nitrophenyl) amino)-4-oxobut-2-enoate (DTN) for its anti-ulcer potential. Characteriza...

    Authors: Syed Azmatullah, Arif-ullah Khan, Neelam Gul Qazi, Humaira Nadeem and Nadeem Irshad
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:58
  28. This study compared efficacy and safety of TA4415V, a trastuzumab biosimilar, with reference trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2positive (HER2-positive) early-stage breast cance...

    Authors: Reza Safaei Nodehi, Behjat Kalantari, Jahangir Raafat, Nafiseh Ansarinejad, Vahid Moazed, Seyed Mohammad Reza Mortazavizadeh, Mehran Hosseinzadeh, Bayazid Ghaderi, Arash Jenabian, Mojtaba Qadyani, Shirin Haghighat, Abolghasem Allahyari, Mehrzad Mirzania, Mohammad Seghatoleslami, Mehrdad Payandeh, Afsaneh Alikhasi…
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:57
  29. Colorectal cancer is among the most common cancers and accounts for nearly 9% of all cancers in the world. Chrysophanol is a naturally occurring anthraquinone exerts a number of pharmacological activities s...

    Authors: Alaadin M. Naqishbandi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:56
  30. As a progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone combined with misoprostol is widely used to terminate early pregnancy in clinical practice. It has also been reported that mifepristone may cause cell death ...

    Authors: Fei Tian, Hua Han, Ligang Jia, Junqin Zhang, Zhaoping Chu, Jie Li, Yuan Zhang and Ping Yan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:55
  31. Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic injury, featuring with excess accumulation of extracellular matrix secreted by the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Disulfiram (DSF), also known as ...

    Authors: Xiao-Mei Yang, Zheng Wu, Xiaoqi Wang, Yaoqi Zhou, Lei Zhu, Dongxue Li, Hui-Zhen Nie, Ya-Hui Wang, Jun Li and Xueyun Ma
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:54
  32. The effects of age and gender were explored on pharmacokinetics study of omeprazole enteric-coated tablets in Chinese population and a plasma concentration prediction model was developed. All the data (demogra...

    Authors: Yichao Xu, Jinliang Chen, Dandan Yang, Yin Hu, Bo Jiang, Zourong Ruan and Honggang Lou
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:53
  33. Polysorbate 80 for injection (TW80) is a common excipient used for injection whose macromolecular impurities, including those that cause anaphylactoid reactions, are frequently ignored. The main aim of this st...

    Authors: Yue Li, Jinlian Duan, Heng Xia, Yongkun Li, Bin Shu and Weigang Duan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:52
  34. Administration of antineoplastic drugs may cause azoospermia driving to subfertility. Production of animal azoospermia models is essential for evaluating new treatment methods before therapeutic interventions ...

    Authors: Halimeh Mobarak, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Nouri, Mohammad Heidarpour and Mahdi Mahdipour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:50
  35. With diabetes incidence growing globally and metformin still being the first-line for its treatment, metformin’s toxicity and overdose have been increasing. Hence, its mortality rate is increasing. For the fir...

    Authors: Omid Mehrpour, Farhad Saeedi, Christopher Hoyte, Foster Goss and Farshad M. Shirazi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:49

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:68

  36. Stemness of CD133+EPCAM+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells ensures cancer resistance to apoptosis,which is a challenge to current liver cancer treatments. In this study, we evaluated the tumorcidal activity of a nov...

    Authors: Danni Li, Qiying Zhang, Yuzhu Zhou, Hua Zhu, Tong Li and Fangkai Du
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:48
  37. Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenol compound found in grapes, veratrum and other plants. It has been reported that RSV has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and other pharmacological effects. However,...

    Authors: Yanli Wang, Tingting Wei, Qiang Wang, Chaonan Zhang, Keyan Li and Jinbo Deng
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:47
  38. Permethrin is one of the pyrethroid insecticides, which is widely used in agriculture and public health. Although acute toxicity of the insecticide has been studied, the chronic toxicity upon the long-term exp...

    Authors: Ying-Jian Sun, Yu-Jie Liang, Lin Yang, Ding-Xin Long, Hui-Ping Wang and Yi-Jun Wu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:46
  39. The combination of lisinopril and amlodipine has a marked additional effect on blood pressure and fewer side effects than individual monotherapy. This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic paramet...

    Authors: Ting Li, Yan-ping Liu, Shu-qin Liu, Ping Shi, Xin Jiang, Ye Tao, Xiao-meng Gao, Ya-ping Ma and Yu Cao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:45
  40. There were limited studies investigating treatments of septic cardiomyopathy (SCM), which is a common complication during sepsis. A septic rat model created by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to inv...

    Authors: Zhaoqing Lu, Di Wu, Zheng Wang, Hanyu Zhang, Yufan Du and Guoxing Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:44
  41. The capsid (CA) subunit of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein is involved in several steps of the viral cycle, from the assembly of new viral particles to the protection of the viral genome until it enters into the nuc...

    Authors: Guzmán Alvarez, Lisa van Pul, Xavier Robert, Zoraima Artía, Ad C. van Nuenen, Mathieu Long, Natalia Sierra, Williams Porcal, Neeltje A. Kootstra and Christophe Guillon
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:43
  42. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women worldwide. Anti-apoptotic activity of cancer cells is considered the main reason for drug resistance in BC which reduces the 5-year survival rat...

    Authors: Mandana AmeliMojarad, Melika AmeliMojarad and Alireza Pourmahdian
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:42
  43. COVID-19 pandemic has claimed millions of lives and devastated the health service system, livelihood, and economy in many countries worldwide. Despite the vaccination programs in many countries, the spread of ...

    Authors: Kunlakanya Jitobaom, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Suwimon Manopwisedjaroen, Nuntaya Punyadee, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Arunee Thitithanyanont, Panisadee Avirutnan and Prasert Auewarakul
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:41
  44. The current study evaluates the free gallic acid (GA) and GA-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) antidepressant efficacy in a rat model of depression caused by reserpine.

    Authors: Heba M. Fahmy, Eman R. Mohamed, Aida A. Hussein, Yasser A. Khadrawy and Nawal A. Ahmed
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:40
  45. With an increasing number of reviews describing clinically significant drug–drug interactions (DDIs), the scope and severity of interactions involving commonly used drugs in cardiothoracic intensive care units...

    Authors: Haitao Wang, Haitao Shi, Na Wang, Yan Wang, Li Zhang, Yujie Zhao and Jiao Xie
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:39
  46. Recently, taurolidine has been intensively studied on a variety of in-vitro cancer cell-lines and first data exhibit encouraging antitumoral effects. While the clinical use of taurolidine is considered, some s...

    Authors: Agata Mikolajczyk, Veria Khosrawipour, Hien Lau, Shiri Li, Pawel Migdal, Maya Karine Labbé, Wojciech Kielan, Jakub Nicpon, Sven Stieglitz and Tanja Khosrawipour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:38
  47. The assessment of biosafety of pharmacologically active substances is crucial for determining the feasibility of their medical use. There are controversial issues regarding the use of substances of different o...

    Authors: N. Bezdieniezhnykh, A. Lykhova, T. Kozak, T. Zadvornyi, T. Borikun, O. Voronina and N. Lukianova
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:37
  48. Drug-drug interactions are a major cause of morbidity worldwide and are a leading source of treatment inefficacy. They are classified based on their pharmacological action on the body as major, moderate, and m...

    Authors: Thamineni Bheema Lingaiah, Yibeltal Andarge Belay and Kokeb Dese
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:36
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