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  1. Despite significant advancements in breast cancer therapy, novel drugs with lower side effects are still being demanded. In this regard, we investigated the anti-cancer features of verbascoside in 4 T1 mouse m...

    Authors: Atena Daneshforouz, Samad Nazemi, Omid Gholami, Marzieh Kafami and Bahareh Amin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:72

    Content type: Research

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  2. Leishmania aethiopica (L. aethiopica) is responsible for different forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia. Treatment heavily depends on limited drugs, together with drawbacks like toxicity and microbia...

    Authors: Markos Tadele, Solomon M. Abay, Peter Asaga, Eyasu Makonnen and Asrat Hailu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:71

    Content type: Research

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  3. Gastric cancer is a common gastrointestinal cancer and currently has the third-highest mortality rate. Research shows that the natural compound narciclasine has a variety of biological activities. The present ...

    Authors: Yunfeng Yuan, Xue He, Xiang Li, Yan Liu, Yueliang Tang, Huiming Deng and Xinyuan Shi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:70

    Content type: Research

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  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most disabling neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) and/or ritualized me...

    Authors: Fatemeh Hadi, Shayan Kashefinejad, Leila Kamalzadeh, Saba Hoobehfekr and Mohammadreza Shalbafan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:69

    Content type: Research

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  5. Ovarian cancer is the world’s dreaded disease and its prevalence is expanding globally. The study of integrated molecular networks is crucial for the basic mechanism of cancer cells and their progression. Duri...

    Authors: Suchitra Maheswari Ajjarapu, Apoorv Tiwari, Gohar Taj, Dev Bukhsh Singh, Sakshi Singh and Sundip Kumar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:68

    Content type: Research

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  6. Identification of internationally comparable indicators of medicines use are important for a country to implement strategies and regulations to improve usage of medicines. Sri Lanka established a new National ...

    Authors: P. Galappatthy, P. Ranasinghe, C. K. Liyanage, M. S. Wijayabandara, S. Mythily and R. L. Jayakody

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:67

    Content type: Research

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  7. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the most widely used immunosuppressive drug in transplantation and for autoimmune diseases. Unfortunately, more than 30% of patients experience a typical gastrointestinal adverse eff...

    Authors: Manon Jardou, Quentin Provost, Clarisse Brossier, Émilie Pinault, François-Ludovic Sauvage and Roland Lawson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:66

    Content type: Research

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  8. The prevalence and characteristics of drug-related problems (DRPs) and factors associated with the occurrence of DRPs in the neurology unit in China remain unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence...

    Authors: Pengpeng Liu, Guangyao Li, Mei Han and Chao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:65

    Content type: Research

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  9. Dopamine D2 receptor agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline, are notable medications in the treatment of Parkinsonism, hyperprolactinemia, and hyperglycemia. An affiliation was found between the initiation of my...

    Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Fouad Shalaby, Hekma A. Abd El Latif, Mohamed El Yamani, May Ahmed Galal, Sherifa Kamal, Ikhlas Sindi and Raneem Masaood

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:64

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In clinical practice, the risk factors for pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-related hand-foot syndrome remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with hand-foot syndr...

    Authors: Yanfang Zhao, Wenjia Su, Guohua Liang, Xiaoyu Shan, Weiwei Ma, Dabei Tang, Liru Li, Xingjian Niu, Shu Zhao, Qingyuan Zhang and Wenhui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:63

    Content type: Research

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  11. Cell pyroptosis has been characterized by cell swelling and pro-inflammatory factors release to aggravate inflammatory reaction., such as interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interlukin18 (IL-18). However, the functi...

    Authors: Jin Huang, Pingsheng Fan, Miao Liu, Chengtao Weng, Gaofei Fan, Tengyue Zhang, Xiaohong Duan, Yang Wu, Lili Tang, Guohong Yang and Yabei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:62

    Content type: Research

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  12. The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in thelate 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease ...

    Authors: Maral Aminpour, Williams Ernesto Miranda Delgado, Soren Wacker, Sergey Noskov, Michael Houghton, D. Lorne J. Tyrrell and Jack A. Tuszynski

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:61

    Content type: Research

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  13. This study aims to establish an in vitro monitoring approach to evaluate the pesticide exposures. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of three different body fluids of rats to the respective corresponding tissue...

    Authors: Yu-Jie Liang, Ding-Xin Long, Ming-Yuan Xu, Hui-Ping Wang, Ying-Jian Sun and Yi-Jun Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:60

    Content type: Research

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  14. Tramadol is a widely used synthetic opioid for moderate to severe pain. Some studies have shown that tramadol can increase oxidative stress in different tissues of the body. Quercetin is also a substance with ...

    Authors: Samaneh Nakhaee, Khadijeh Farrokhfall, Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam, Mohsen Foadoddini, Masoumeh Askari and Omid Mehrpour

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:59

    Content type: Research

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  15. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Novel Coronavirus named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared Pandemic by The World Health Organization (WHO) and a Public Health...

    Authors: Supangat, Elly Nurus Sakinah, Muhammad Yuda Nugraha, Tegar Syaiful Qodar, Bagus Wahyu Mulyono and Achmad Ilham Tohari

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:58

    Content type: Research

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  16. Pharmacokinetics (PK) is the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Some drugs undergo zero-order kinetics (ethyl alcohol), first order kinetics (piroxicam) and mixed ...

    Authors: Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:57

    Content type: Technical advance

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  17. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the pediatric population may differ in types and frequencies compared to other populations. Respective studies analyzing ADR reports referring to children have already been per...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Sarah Leitzen, Irmgard Toni, Julia Stingl, M. Schulz, Matthias Schmid, Antje Neubert and Bernhardt Sachs

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:56

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Sunitinib is known to cause cardiotoxicity in clinical settings. However, among sunitinib-treated patients experiencing adverse cardiac events, decreased cardiac function was reportedly reversible in > 50% of ...

    Authors: Toshikatsu Matsui and Tadahiro Shinozawa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:55

    Content type: Research

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  19. Berberine (BBR) is a plant alkaloid that possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects with low oral bioavailability. In this study, micelle formulation of BBR was investigated to improve therapeutic ef...

    Authors: Roza Azadi, Seyyedeh Elaheh Mousavi, Negar Motakef Kazemi, Hasan Yousefi-Manesh, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat and Mahmoud Reza Jaafari

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:54

    Content type: Research

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  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have become significant global health concerns. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of saroglitazar, a d...

    Authors: Rasoul Akbari, Tahereh Behdarvand, Reza Afarin, Hamid Yaghooti, Mohammad Taha Jalali and Narges Mohammadtaghvaei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:53

    Content type: Research

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  21. The cancer burden is rising rapidly worldwide, and it annually causes about 8.8 million deaths worldwide. Due to chemical drugs’ side effects and the emergence of resistance, the development of new green drugs...

    Authors: Alireza Valizadeh, Ali Asghar Khaleghi, Ghazaal Roozitalab and Mahmoud Osanloo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:52

    Content type: Research

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  22. The bark of Bois Bande (Parinari campestris) is a popular aphrodisiac in the Caribbean that has been traditionally used for many years to restore sexual vitality, increase sperm count, and treat erectile dysfunct...

    Authors: Venkatesan Sundaram, Stephanie Mohammed, M. R. Srinivasan, Jenelle Johnson, Rod Suepaul, Indira Pargass, Chernell John, Danesha Ramdhanie, Shiann Lallack, Esther Daniel and Lester Gilkes

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:51

    Content type: Research

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  23. In septic mice, supplementing parenteral nutrition with 150 mg/day 3-hydroxybutyrate-sodium-salt (3HB-Na) has previously shown to prevent muscle weakness without obvious toxicity. The main objective of this st...

    Authors: Ruben Weckx, Chloë Goossens, Sarah Derde, Lies Pauwels, Sarah Vander Perre, Greet Van den Bergh and Lies Langouche

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:50

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Preconditioning of the heart ameliorates doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity. We tested whether pretreating cardiomyocytes by mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, mitoquinone (MitoQ) or SKQ1, would provid...

    Authors: Brian Sacks, Halil Onal, Rose Martorana, Amogh Sehgal, Amanda Harvey, Catherine Wastella, Hafsa Ahmad, Erin Ross, Adona Pjetergjoka, Sachin Prasad, Robert Barsotti, Lindon H. Young and Qian Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:49

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Aidi Injection (ADI), a Chinese herbal preparation with anti-cancer activity, is used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several clinical studies have shown that co-administration of ADI with...

    Authors: Yuan Lu, Jie Pan, Xiaoqing Zhu, Shuai Zhang, Chunhua Liu, Jia Sun, Yueting Li, Siying Chen, Jing Huang, Chuang Cao, Yonglin Wang, Yongjun Li and Ting Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:48

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with significant increases in short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Drug-induced AKI is a major concern in the present healthcare system. Our spontaneous reporti...

    Authors: Satoshi Nakao, Shiori Hasegawa, Ryogo Umetsu, Kazuyo Shimada, Ririka Mukai, Mizuki Tanaka, Kiyoka Matsumoto, Yu Yoshida, Misaki Inoue, Riko Satake, Yuri Nishibata, Jun Liao and Mitsuhiro Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:47

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) have significantly reduced morbidity, mortality and improved the quality of life of people living with HIV infection. Poor quality ARVs may result in harmful consequences such as ad...

    Authors: Sophia Mziray, Betty A. Maganda, Kissa Mwamwitwa, Adam M. Fimbo, Seth Kisenge, Gerald Sambu, Yonah H. Mwalwisi, Adonis Bitegeko, Emmanuel Alphonce, Akida Khea, Danstan H. Shewiyo and Eliangiringa Kaale

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:46

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Abnormally elevated xanthine oxidase (XO) activity has been verified to cause various pathological processes, such as gout, oxidative stress injury and metabolic syndrome. Thus, XO activators may exhibit above...

    Authors: Liang Yue, Nan Jiang, Anguo Wu, Wenqiao Qiu, Xin Shen, Dalian Qin, Hong Li, Jing Lin, Sicheng Liang and Jianming Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:45

    Content type: Research

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  29. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common pathogen in development of peptic ulcers with pyroptosis. Rabeprazole, a critical component of standard triple therapy, has been widely used as the first-line regimen f...

    Authors: Jing Xie, Long Fan, Liya Xiong, Peiyu Chen, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Junhong Zhao, Zhaohui Xu, Lanlan Geng, Wanfu Xu and Sitang Gong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:44

    Content type: Research

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  30. Esculetin is a natural coumarin derivative from various plants with multiple pharmacological effects. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore the cardio protective potential of esculetin against iso...

    Authors: Chitikela P. Pullaiah, Vinod K. Nelson, Sushma Rayapu, Narasimha Kumar G V and Thyagaraju Kedam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:43

    Content type: Research

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  31. Melittin is one of the most studied antimicrobial peptides, and several in vitro experiments have demonstrated its antibacterial efficacy. However, there is evidence showing melittin has non-promising effects suc...

    Authors: Parvin Askari, Mohammad Hasan Namaei, Kiarash Ghazvini and Mehran Hosseini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:42

    Content type: Research

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  32. Recently, the development of nanocarriers and the improvement of their biochemical properties have became of great importance. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have many applications in drug delivery sys...

    Authors: Mohammad Dahri, Hossein Akbarialiabad, Ahmad Miri Jahromi and Reza Maleki

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:41

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Ethnic differences in testicular cancer rates (TCRs) are recognized internationally. Cannabis is a known risk factor for testicular cancer (TC) in multiple studies with dose-response effects demonstrated, howe...

    Authors: Albert Stuart Reece and Gary Kenneth Hulse

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:40

    Content type: Research

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  34. The present study investigated the ameliorative effect of melittin, a major polypeptide in the venom of honeybee (Apis mellifera), on isoniazid-(INH) and rifampicin-(RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rat...

    Authors: Khalid Mohammed Naji, Bushra Yahya Al-Khatib, Nora Saif Al-Haj and Myrene R. D’souza

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:39

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Subtilisin QK is a serine protease in the subtilisin family, and is fermented by Bacillus subtilis QK02. The fibrinolytic activity of subtilisin QK was measured by detecting low molecular weight degradation produ...

    Authors: Shuai Xiao, Dingbang Hu, Ya Gao, Yang Ai, Sang Luo, Song Chen, Ben Wang, Li Zhou, Yanshan Dong and Yefu Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:38

    Content type: Research

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  36. Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:37

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

  37. Drug-induced toxicity is one of the problems that have negatively impacted on the well-being of populations throughout the world, including Malawi. It results in unnecessary hospitalizations, retarding the dev...

    Authors: Ibrahim Chikowe, Alfred Chipanda Phiri, Kirios Patrick Mbewe and Dunstan Matekenya

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:36

    Content type: Research

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  38. Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) has a negative impact on the recovery, quality of life, and physical functioning of elderly patients. This study aimed to test the superiority of parecoxib vs. placebo in prev...

    Authors: Xiaodong Ge, Yan Pan, Danfeng Jin, Ying Wang and Shengjin Ge

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:35

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by an elevated glycemic index and are at a higher risk for complications such as cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral ...

    Authors: Robert Dobbins, Elizabeth K. Hussey, Robin O’Connor-Semmes, Susan Andrews, Wenli Tao, William O. Wilkison, Bentley Cheatham, Katare Sagar and Barkate Hanmant

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:34

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of allisartan, a new angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on vascular remodeling through voltage gated potassium channels (Kv7) in hypertensi...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Zhang, Ziying Zhao, Chunfang Xu, Fengping Zhao and Zhiqiang Yan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:33

    Content type: Research

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  41. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause several kinds of nosocomial infections. Increasing antibiotic resistance as well as identifying genetic diversity and factors associated with pa...

    Authors: Maryam Hazhirkamal, Omid Zarei, Mahsa Movahedi, Pezhman Karami, Leili Shokoohizadeh and Mohammad Taheri

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:32

    Content type: Research

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  42. The aim of this study is to examine the association of hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia on the first day of ICU admission with mortality in septic critically ill patients.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Albatool M. Al Meshari, Hani Tamim, Sheryl Ann I. Abdukahil, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:30

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Drug potency is a pharmacological parameter defining dose or concentration of drug required to obtain 50% of the drug’s maximal effect. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation allows estimatio...

    Authors: Bernard Ngara, Simbarashe Zvada, Tariro Dianah Chawana, Charles Fungai Brian Nhachi and Simbarashe Rusakaniko

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:29

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for cancers; however, DOX induces cardiac toxicity, called DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. Although DOX-induced cardiomyopathy is known to be...

    Authors: Takaaki Furihata, Satoshi Maekawa, Shingo Takada, Naoya Kakutani, Hideo Nambu, Ryosuke Shirakawa, Takashi Yokota and Shintaro Kinugawa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:27

    Content type: Research

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  45. We aim to develop a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) model of vancomycin for the treatment of septicemia in infants younger than one year. Factors influence of the PK was investigated to optimize vancomycin...

    Authors: Zhiling Li, Hongjing Li, Chenyu Wang, Zheng Jiao, Feng Xu and Huajun Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:26

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. There are no reports on the incidence of chronic mercury poisoning in a large population in China. This study investigated the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and follow-up of Chinese patient...

    Authors: Sun Yawei, Long Jianhai, Zhao Junxiu, Peng Xiaobo and Qiu Zewu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:25

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Surgical procedures cause perioperative immunosuppression and neuroendocrine stress, exerted by activation of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The acetylcholinesterase ...

    Authors: Mennatallah A Gowayed, Amany Abdel-Bary and Rasha A El-Tahan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:24

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is one of the major active components in bile acid. It was proven to have inhibitory activities on inflammation and also participate in host immuno-regulation. TCDCA exerts a...

    Authors: Lige Bao, Dacheng Hao, Xu Wang, Xiuling He, Wei Mao and Peifeng Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:23

    Content type: Research article

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