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  1. The expanded use of multiple drugs has increased the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, such reactions are typically not observed in clinical drug-de...

    Authors: Ruifeng Liu, Mohamed Diwan M. AbdulHameed, Kamal Kumar, Xueping Yu, Anders Wallqvist and Jaques Reifman
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:44
  2. Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the α-galactosidase A gene mutations. Enzyme-replacement-therapy (ERT) products for FD currently used include agalsidase alfa and aga...

    Authors: Kazuya Tsuboi and Hiroshi Yamamoto
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:43
  3. Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional stud...

    Authors: Dina Popova, Jessica Karlsson and Stig O. P. Jacobsson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:42
  4. Tardive akathisia (TA) is a subtype of tardive syndrome, and its etiology is still uncertain. Sevikar is an anti-hypertensive agent containing both amlodipine and olmesartan, and has never been reported to hav...

    Authors: Men-Ting Hsieh, Pao-Yen Lin, Chia-Jen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang and Yu Lee
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:41
  5. Protein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational regulation, which has been shown to be necessary for life cycle progression and survival of Plasmodium falciparum. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76 amin...

    Authors: Jagrati Jain, Surendra K. Jain, Larry A. Walker and Babu L. Tekwani
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:40
  6. We recently reported that hesperetin-5,7,3’-O-triacetate (HTA) dually inhibited phosphodiesterase (PDE)3/4 with a therapeutic ratio of 20.8. The application and development of PDE4 inhibitors for treating asthma ...

    Authors: You-Lan Yang, Chi-Li Chen, Chi-Ming Chen and Wun-Chang Ko
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:39
  7. Metformin associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a rare but lethal complication. There is no consensus regarding when to stop and resume metformin in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). ...

    Authors: Rakan I. Nazer and Khalid A. Alburikan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:38
  8. Run Rat® is a rodenticide widely used against small mammals. It comprises of a minimum of 32% zinc phosphide which is highly toxic in acute exposures to humans. It may be consumed accidentally or intentionally...

    Authors: Nilukshana Yogendranathan, H. M. M. T. B. Herath, Thenuka Sivasundaram, R. Constantine and Aruna Kulatunga
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:37
  9. Psychotropic drugs are common among old people with dementia, and have been associated with increased mortality. Previous studies have not investigated sex differences in this risk. This study was conducted to...

    Authors: Jon Brännström, Gustaf Boström, Erik Rosendahl, Peter Nordström, Håkan Littbrand, Hugo Lövheim and Yngve Gustafson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:36
  10. Drug-resistant microorganism are a growing global danger. Strains of S. aureus have developed resistance to many commonly used antimicrobials due to indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, and treatment becoming a ...

    Authors: Serawit Deyno, Alemayehu Toma, Mesfin Worku and Muluken Bekele
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:35
  11. The aim of this study is to identify the distribution by municipalities of adverse drug events (ADE) in Portugal, including adverse drug reactions (ADR) and accidental poisoning by drugs (AP), on municipality/...

    Authors: Gianina Scripcaru, Ceu Mateus and Carla Nunes
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:34
  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as gefitinib can provide better efficacy and prolonged progression free survival (PFS) than cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic lung ...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Yang, Jen-Yu Hung, Ming-Ju Tsai, Kuan-Li Wu, Ta-Chih Liu, Shah-Hwa Chou, Jui-Ying Lee, Jui-Sheng Hsu, Ming-Shyan Huang and Inn-Wen Chong
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:21
  13. Diacetyl-liensinine is a chemosynthetic derivative of liensinine, extracted from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, in China. It has been found to have extensive anti- arrhythmic actions. The present stu...

    Authors: Feng Cao, Teng Wang, Wenmao Ding, Zhe Li, Shaobo Shi and Xiaozhan Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:33
  14. Cardol is a major bioactive constituent in the Trigona incisa propolis from Indonesia, with a strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against the SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC50 of 4.51 ± 0.76 ...

    Authors: Paula Mariana Kustiawan, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Tanapat Palaga, Songchan Puthong, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan, Jisnuson Svasti and Chanpen Chanchao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:32
  15. Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and anthelminthic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) and praziquantel (PZQ) were assessed by investigating their permeation through the Caco-2 cell monolayers in a tr...

    Authors: Gabriel Kigen and Geoffrey Edwards
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:20
  16. Poor drug quality is a matter of serious concern, especially in countries where drug regulation and law enforcement are constrained by limited resources. This study was carried out to investigate the cause of ...

    Authors: Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Naoko Yoshida, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tep Keila, Tey Sovannarith, Heng Bun Kiet, Eav Dararth, Theingi Zin, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto and Kazuko Kimura
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:31
  17. Promiscuity in molecular interactions between small-molecules, including drugs, and proteins is widespread. Such unintended interactions can be exploited to suggest drug repurposing possibilities as well as to...

    Authors: Matthieu Chartier, Louis-Philippe Morency, María Inés Zylber and Rafael J. Najmanovich
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:18
  18. Vascular disease is a common and often severe complication in diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia and hypertension are considered to be two of the leading risk factors for vascular complications in diabetic patie...

    Authors: Yu-Guang Ma, Jun-Wei Wang, Yun-Gang Bai, Mei Liu, Man-Jiang Xie and Zhi-Jun Dai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:30
  19. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous date extract (ADE) against the dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced testicular injury in rats.

    Authors: Amira El Arem, Lamia Lahouar, Emna Behija Saafi, Amira Thouri, Fatma Ghrairi, Zohra Houas, Fadoua Neffati and Lotfi Achour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:17
  20. The objective of the present study aimed to investigate the effect of CoQ10 treatment on isoprenaline (ISO)-induced cardiac remodeling in rats.

    Authors: Anayt Ulla, Mustafe Khalid Mohamed, Biswajit Sikder, AFM Towheedur Rahman, Farzana Akther Sumi, Murad Hossain, Hasan Mahmud Reza, G. M. Sayedur Rahman and Md Ashraful Alam
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:29
  21. Nowadays, canagliflozin monotherapy, or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), is often administered in patients who are treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we aimed to ...

    Authors: Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Girish Janoo and Feng Huang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:19
  22. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are reported to have BP-lowering effect in addition to blood glucose-lowering effect, however, its mechanism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate ...

    Authors: Shin Kawasoe, Yukiko Maruguchi, Shoko Kajiya, Hitoshi Uenomachi, Masaaki Miyata, Mariko Kawasoe, Takuro Kubozono and Mitsuru Ohishi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:23
  23. Genetic variation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene polymorphism has been suggested to modulate coronary heart diseases (CHD), yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood.

    Authors: Yuanyuan Xu, Yan Wang, Jixin Zhi, Lichun Qi, Tong Zhang and Xueqi Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:28
  24. Adherence to prescribed medication is an imperative issue which can be directly linked with the management of chronic diseases like hypertension; failure to adhere can affect the effectiveness of medication as...

    Authors: Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen, Mignote Hailu Gebrie, Kokeb Haile Eyasu and Abebaw Addis Gelagay
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:27
  25. Cs2K4Na [SiW9Nb3O40] (POM93) is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral agent with high activity, high stability, and low toxicity in vitro. Most toxicity studies for POM93 have been performed in cultured cell lines rat...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Qu, Kun Xu, Chao Zhao, Xiuling Song, Jinhua Li, Li Li, Wei Nie, Hao Bao, Juan Wang, Fenglan Niu and Juan Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:26
  26. Many patients with acromegaly require medical treatment that includes somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Long-acting SSA formulations are widely used, due in part to increased patient convenience and increased treat...

    Authors: Michelle H. Gurel, Yi Han, Andrea L. Stevens, Aaron Furtado and David Cox
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:22
  27. Surotomycin, a novel, orally administered, cyclic, lipopeptide antibacterial in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, has demonstrated minimal intestinal absorption in animal...

    Authors: Gurudatt Chandorkar, Qiao Zhan, Julie Donovan, Shruta Rege and Hernando Patino
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:24
  28. Adverse reactions associated to anti-thyroid drugs include fever, rash, arthralgia, agranulocytosis and hepatitis that are thought to be hypersensitivity reactions. Five cases of pleural effusion associated to...

    Authors: Pedro Gaspar-da-Costa, Filipa Duarte Silva, Júlia Henriques, Sónia do Vale, Sandra Braz, João Meneses Santos and Rui M.M. Victorino
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:16
  29. Better and safer antidotes against cyanide poisoning are needed. Prior study has shown a favorable effect of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on the survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits when administered as early a...

    Authors: Ophir Lavon, Amit Avrahami and Arik Eisenkraft
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:13
  30. Acyclovir has been widely used to treat infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The common adverse effects of this drug include nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness a...

    Authors: Xiaowei Hong, Xiaoqian Wang and Zhiyong Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:12
  31. Clarithromycin (CAM), a representative macrolide antibiotic, has been used widely at low doses for long-term therapy of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics ...

    Authors: Kuninori Iwayama, Ayuko Kusakabe, Keisuke Ohtsu, Takahiro Nawano, Ryosuke Tatsunami, Ko-ichi Ohtaki, Yoshiko Tampo and Nobumasa Hayase
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:15
  32. Side-population (SP) cells that exclude anti-cancer drugs have been found in various tumor cell lines. Moreover, SP cells have a higher proliferative potential and drug resistance than main population cells (N...

    Authors: Seon Young Choi, Hang-Rae Kim, Pan Dong Ryu and So Yeong Lee
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:14
  33. Non-prescription access to antimicrobials is common, and self-prescribing is increasingly popular in Russian society. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of community pharmacists regarding antibi...

    Authors: Tatiana Belkina, Natalia Duvanova, Julia Karbovskaja, Jurjen Duintjer Tebbens and Jiri Vlcek
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:11
  34. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and premature death. Despite European guidelines advocating the use of medical therapies in CVD, many patients still do not achieve the guideline-rec...

    Authors: Valentín Fuster, Francesc Gambús, Aldo Patriciello, Margaretha Hamrin and Diederick E. Grobbee
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:10
  35. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a fatal infectious complication among immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus terreus, the fourth common species can be difficult to treat due to a unique resistance pattern. To dat...

    Authors: Pitchaya Dilokpattanamongkol, Panadda Panusitthikorn, Rasda Boonprasert, Methee Chayakulkeeree and Porpon Rotjanapan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:8
  36. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with obesity and various obesity-associated pathological conditions including glucose intolerance. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of heme metabolites, is a nat...

    Authors: Urara Ota, Takeshi Hara, Hitoshi Nakagawa, Emi Tsuru, Masayuki Tsuda, Atsuko Kamiya, Yasushi Kuroda, Yuya Kitajima, Aya Koda, Masahiro Ishizuka, Hideo Fukuhara, Keiji Inoue, Taro Shuin, Motowo Nakajima and Tohru Tanaka
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:7
  37. Amitraz is a pesticide used worldwide on animals and in agriculture. It contains triazapentadiene, which is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist. Amitraz poisoning is fairly uncommon in humans and occ...

    Authors: H. M. M. T. B. Herath, S. P. Pahalagamage, Nilukshana Yogendranathan, M. D. M. S. Wijayabandara and Aruna Kulatunga
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:6
  38. NF-κB is one of the key transcription factors in the inflammatory response, transactivates a series of pro-inflammatory genes and is therefore regarded as an important target for anti-inflammatory drug screening.

    Authors: Yue Li, Xiaomeng Wang, Juan Ren, Xi Lan, Jing Li, Jing Yi, Li Liu, Yan Han, Sanqi Zhang, Dongmin Li and Shemin Lu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:5
  39. Synthetic and natural antioxidants including Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell (Scrophulariaceae) which also possess anti-dopaminergic properties, have been proposed to be useful for emetogenic chemotherapy. In this s...

    Authors: Javaid Alam, Fazal Subhan, Ihsan Ullah, Muhammad Shahid, Gowhar Ali and Robert D. E. Sewell
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:4

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:9

  40. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis in childhood, which is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. If untreated, KD can result in coronary aneurysms in 25% of patients, and ev...

    Authors: Fu-Chen Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo, Ying-Hsien Huang, Hong-Ren Yu, Sung-Chou Li and Hsing-Chun Kuo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:3
  41. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the co-administration of fimasartan and rosuv...

    Authors: Moo-Yong Rhee, Taehoon Ahn, Kiyuk Chang, Shung Chull Chae, Tae-Hyun Yang, Wan Joo Shim, Tae Soo Kang, Jae-Kean Ryu, Deuk-Young Nah, Tae-Ho Park, In-Ho Chae, Seung Woo Park, Hae-Young Lee, Seung-Jea Tahk, Young Won Yoon, Chi Young Shim…
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:2
  42. Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases.

    Authors: Victor Kuete, Leonidah K. Omosa, Viviane R. Sipowo Tala, Jacob O. Midiwo, Armelle T. Mbaveng, Sauda Swaleh, Oğuzhan Karaosmanoğlu and Hülya Sivas
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:60
  43. Transport of methylmercury (MeHg) across the blood-brain barrier towards the brain side is well discussed in literature, while ethylmercury (EtHg) and inorganic mercury are not adequately characterized regardi...

    Authors: Hanna Lohren, Julia Bornhorst, Romy Fitkau, Gabriele Pohl, Hans-Joachim Galla and Tanja Schwerdtle
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:63
  44. Combination lithium, a mood stabilizer, and risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is widely used for treatment of psychotic disorders. Rare reports concern severe adverse drug reaction in multiple organ...

    Authors: Chih-Wei Hsu, Yu Lee, Chun-Yi Lee and Pao-Yen Lin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:59
  45. More potent antitumor activity is desired in Interferon (IFN)-treated cancer patients. This could be achieved by combining IFN alpha and IFN gamma. The aim of this work was to characterize the pharmacokinetics...

    Authors: Idrian García-García, Ignacio Hernández-González, Alina Díaz-Machado, Carlos A. González-Delgado, Sonia Pérez-Rodríguez, Yanelda García-Vega, Rosario Campos-Mojena, Ángela D. Tuero-Iglesias, Carmen M. Valenzuela-Silva, Alieski Cruz-Ramírez, Alis Martín-Trujillo, Héctor Santana-Milián, Pedro A. López-Saura and Iraldo Bello-Rivero
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:58
  46. Our objective was to test neural active compounds in a human developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) model that represents neural tube stages of vulnerability. Previously we showed that 14 days in vitro (DIV 14) was...

    Authors: Xian Wu, Anirban Majumder, Robin Webb and Steven L. Stice
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:62
  47. Surgical site infections are common and devastating complications after implants related surgeries. Staphylococcus aureus contamination is a leading cause of surgical site infections. This study aims at assessing...

    Authors: Gang Liu, Si Chen, Jun Fang, Baoshan Xu, Shuang Li, Yonghong Hao, Naif A. Al-Dhabi, Shucai Deng and Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:61
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