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  1. Combination lithium, a mood stabilizer, and risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is widely used for treatment of psychotic disorders. Rare reports concern severe adverse drug reaction in multiple organ...

    Authors: Chih-Wei Hsu, Yu Lee, Chun-Yi Lee and Pao-Yen Lin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:59
  2. More potent antitumor activity is desired in Interferon (IFN)-treated cancer patients. This could be achieved by combining IFN alpha and IFN gamma. The aim of this work was to characterize the pharmacokinetics...

    Authors: Idrian García-García, Ignacio Hernández-González, Alina Díaz-Machado, Carlos A. González-Delgado, Sonia Pérez-Rodríguez, Yanelda García-Vega, Rosario Campos-Mojena, Ángela D. Tuero-Iglesias, Carmen M. Valenzuela-Silva, Alieski Cruz-Ramírez, Alis Martín-Trujillo, Héctor Santana-Milián, Pedro A. López-Saura and Iraldo Bello-Rivero
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:58
  3. Our objective was to test neural active compounds in a human developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) model that represents neural tube stages of vulnerability. Previously we showed that 14 days in vitro (DIV 14) was...

    Authors: Xian Wu, Anirban Majumder, Robin Webb and Steven L. Stice
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:62
  4. Surgical site infections are common and devastating complications after implants related surgeries. Staphylococcus aureus contamination is a leading cause of surgical site infections. This study aims at assessing...

    Authors: Gang Liu, Si Chen, Jun Fang, Baoshan Xu, Shuang Li, Yonghong Hao, Naif A. Al-Dhabi, Shucai Deng and Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:61
  5. Tenofovir, one of antiretroviral medication to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is known to cause proximal renal tubular acidosis such as Fanconi syndrome, but cases of distal renal tubular ...

    Authors: Kentaro Iwata, Manabu Nagata, Shuhei Watanabe and Shinichi Nishi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:52
  6. The antimalarial activity of plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a naturally occurring naphthoquinone widely distributed in the Plumbaginaceae family has previously been demonstrated in vitro (g...

    Authors: Wiriyaporn Sumsakul, Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn and Kesara Na-Bangchang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:50
  7. Antidotes stocking is a critical component of hospital care for poisoned patients in emergency. Antidote stocking represents a major health challenge worldwide and in Lebanon. Systematic data monitoring of ant...

    Authors: Anthony Mansour, Layla Al-Bizri, Jad El-Maamary, Amanda al-Helou, Rayan Hamade, Elie Saliba, Dina Khammash, Karim Makhoul, Kamal Matli, Nada Ghosn, Mary Deeb and Wissam H. Faour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:51
  8. The negative consequences of nicotine use are well known and documented, however, abstaining from nicotine use and achieving abstinence poses a major challenge for the majority of nicotine users trying to quit. l

    Authors: Shamia L. Faison, Charles W. Schindler, Steven R. Goldberg and Jia Bei Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:49
  9. Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal. However, Mn’s nutritional aspects are paralleled by its role as a neurotoxicant upon excessive exposure. In this review, we covered recent advances in identifying me...

    Authors: Tanara V. Peres, Maria Rosa C. Schettinger, Pan Chen, Fabiano Carvalho, Daiana S. Avila, Aaron B. Bowman and Michael Aschner
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:57
  10. Lead (Pb2+) exposure has been shown to impair presynaptic neurotransmitter release in both in vivo and in vitro model systems. The mechanism by which Pb2+ impairs neurotransmitter release has not been fully eluci...

    Authors: Sara Rose Guariglia, Kirstie H. Stansfield, Jennifer McGlothan and Tomas R. Guilarte
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:56
  11. Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins, which are crucial for the distribution of heavy and transition metals. Previously, we found in mice that knockout of MT 1 and 2 genes (MTKO) impaired spatial learning ...

    Authors: Ann Petro, Hannah G. Sexton, Caroline Miranda, Anit Rastogi, Jonathan H. Freedman and Edward D. Levin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:55
  12. All living cells display a rapid molecular response to adverse environmental conditions, and the heat shock protein family reflects one such example. Hence, failing to activate heat shock proteins can impair t...

    Authors: Daiana Silva Avila, Alexandre Benedetto, Catherine Au, Julia Bornhorst and Michael Aschner
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:54
  13. Ghana changed their antimalarial drug policy from monotherapies to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies in 2004 in order to provide more efficacious medicines for treatment of malaria. The policy change can...

    Authors: Mathilda Tivura, Isaac Asante, Albert van Wyk, Stephaney Gyaase, Naiela Malik, Emmanuel Mahama, Dana M. Hostetler, Facundo M. Fernandez, Kwaku Poku Asante, Harparkash Kaur and Seth Owusu-Agyei
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:48
  14. Side effects, or the adverse effects of drugs, contain important clinical phenotypic information that may be useful in predicting novel or unknown targets of a drug. It has been suggested that drugs with simil...

    Authors: Yu Sun, Vaibhav A. Narayan and Gayle M. Wittenberg
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:47
  15. In the present study, we investigated the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. Besides, we also evaluated the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves...

    Authors: Saeed Mohammed Imran Hosen, Dipesh Das, Rupkanowar Kobi, Dil Umme Salma Chowdhury, Md Jibran Alam, Bashudev Rudra, Muhammad Abu Bakar, Saiful Islam, Zillur Rahman and Mohammad Al-Forkan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:46
  16. The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the...

    Authors: Marwan A. Ahmed, George Muntingh and Paul Rheeder
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:44
  17. With the increasing publicity of marijuana due to recent legislation, it is pertinent that the effects of fetal exposure to the drug are assessed. While in utero cannabis exposure has been associated with early p...

    Authors: Joseph Friedrich, Dara Khatib, Keon Parsa, Ariana Santopietro and G. Ian Gallicano
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:45
  18. Statins are used for treatment of hypercholestremia. Common adverse reports associated with use of statins are generalized bodyache, rhabdomyolysis, muscles weakness and gastrointestinal disorders. The current...

    Authors: Niaz Ali, Robina Begum, Muhammad Saleh Faisal, Aslam Khan, Muhammad Nabi, Gulfam Shehzadi, Shakir Ullah and Waqar Ali
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:43
  19. In some countries the misuse and diversion of prescribed opioid analgesic is increasing considerably, but there is no official data regarding the situation in Colombia. The aim of this study was to identify al...

    Authors: Maria G. Garcia-Orjuela, Lineth Alarcon-Franco, Juan C. Sanchez-Fernandez, Yuli Agudelo and Andres F. Zuluaga
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:42
  20. It has been observed that the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as compared to the placebo groups in some clinical trials conducted in China is weaker than that in trials conducted outside ...

    Authors: Lingyu He, Shu Liu, Chun Shan, Yingmei Tu, Zhengqing Li and Xiaohua Douglas Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:40
  21. Taxus (yew) is one of the most frequently reported plants causing potentially fatal outcome when taken incidentally or for suicidal reasons. A fast and reliable method of detection of poisonous compounds or th...

    Authors: Małgorzata Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Anna Marciniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Ściborski, Aneta Stachurska, Andrzej Mysiak and Adam Matkowski
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:41
  22. The elderly are frequently exposed to drug related problems causing hospitalizations and increased costs of care. Information about Romanian prescribing practices among the elderly and potential medication ass...

    Authors: Daniela Petruta Primejdie, Marius Traian Bojita and Adina Popa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:38
  23. Praziquantel (PZQ) is an antihelminthic drug whose P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate specificity has not been conclusively characterized. We investigated its specificity by comparing its in vitro intracellular accu...

    Authors: Gabriel Kigen and Geoffrey Edwards
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:37
  24. The number of medication errors occurring in healthcare is large and many are preventable. To analyze medication errors and evaluate whether Positive Deviance is effective in reducing them.

    Authors: Fabio Teixeira Ferracini, Alexandre R. Marra, Claudio Schvartsman, Oscar F. Pavão dos Santos, Elivane da Silva Victor, Neila Maria Marques Negrini, Wladimir Mendes Borges Filho and Michael B. Edmond
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:36
  25. Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most multiple resistances to antibiotics in the recent years. Therefore, practically-prescribed antibiotics in the treatment of these strains are not effective. Plant-deri...

    Authors: Supatcharee Siriwong, Yothin Teethaisong, Kanjana Thumanu, Benjawan Dunkhunthod and Griangsak Eumkeb
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:39
  26. Fimasartan (FMS) is a potent angiotensin receptor blocker for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the transfer of FMS to fetus and breast milk in rats.

    Authors: Tae Hwan Kim, Min Gi Kim, Soyoung Shin, Yong-Ha Chi, Soo-Heui Paik, Joo-Han Lee, Sun Dong Yoo, Yu Seok Youn, Jürgen B. Bulitta, Sang Hoon Joo, Seok Won Jeong, Kwon-Yeon Weon and Beom Soo Shin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:35
  27. Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their ...

    Authors: Dipankar Chaudhuri, Nikhil Baban Ghate, Sourav Panja and Nripendranath Mandal
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:34
  28. MotherToBaby Utah is a teratogen information service that provides support for pregnant and breastfeeding women and healthcare providers regarding risks of exposures to medications, infections, herbals, homeop...

    Authors: Sarah C. Campbell, Tyler T. Kast, Manijeh Kamyar, Julia Robertson and Catherine M. Sherwin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:33
  29. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, diabetes and other human diseases. HDAC inhibitors, as a new class of potential therapeutic agents, have attracted a ...

    Authors: Yan-xin Huang, Jian Zhao, Qiu-hang Song, Li-hua Zheng, Cong Fan, Ting-ting Liu, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Li-biao Zhang and Yu-xin Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:32
  30. Olvanil (NE 19550) is a non-pungent synthetic analogue of capsaicin, the natural pungent ingredient of capsicum which activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel and was develop...

    Authors: Mohammad Alsalem, Paul Millns, Ahmad Altarifi, Khalid El-Salem, Victoria Chapman and David A. Kendall
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:31
  31. Sri Lanka has a high suicide rate, with more than 40 % of poisoning admissions due to overdose of drugs with Paracetamol being the commonest. Data regarding cardiotoxicity to paracetamol is very minimal though...

    Authors: Udaya Ralapanawa, Kushalee Poornima Jayawickreme, Ekanayake Mudiyanselage Madhushanka Ekanayake and A. M. S. Dhammika Menike Dissanayake
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:30
  32. All hematopoietic cells express P2 receptors, however pharmacological characteristics such as expression and affinity in granulocytes are unknown.

    Authors: Antonio Carlos Ribeiro-Filho, Marcus Vinicius Buri, Carlos Castilho Barros, Juliana Luporini Dreyfuss, Helena Bonciani Nader, Giselle Zenker Justo, Rogério Bastos Craveiro, João Bosco Pesquero, Antonio Miranda, Alice Teixeira Ferreira and Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:29
  33. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) is a worldwide drug of abuse commonly used by adolescents. Most reports focus on MDMA’s neurotoxicity and use high doses in adult animals, meanwhile studie...

    Authors: Armanda Teixeira-Gomes, Vera Marisa Costa, Rita Feio-Azevedo, José Alberto Duarte, Margarida Duarte-Araújo, Eduarda Fernandes, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho and João Paulo Capela
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:28
  34. Prescription writing is a process which transfers the therapeutic message from the prescriber to the patient through the pharmacist. Prescribing errors, drug duplication and potential drug-drug interactions (p...

    Authors: Devarajan Rathish, Sivaswamy Bahini, Thanikai Sivakumar, Thilani Thiranagama, Tharmarajah Abarajithan, Buddhika Wijerathne, Channa Jayasumana and Sisira Siribaddana
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:27
  35. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a cornerstone of graft acceptance. High numbers of Tregs are associated with better long-term graft survival. Recently, Vitamin D was suggested as an immunomodulator, in addition...

    Authors: Mostafa G. Aly, Karina Trojan, Rolf Weimer, Christian Morath, Gerhard Opelz, Mohammed A. Tohamy and Volker Daniel
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:24
  36. This study sought to assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships of caffeine citrate therapy in preterm neonates who had therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in the post-extubation period.

    Authors: Tian Yu, Alfred H. Balch, Robert M. Ward, E. Kent Korgenski and Catherine M. T. Sherwin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:22
  37. Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations, in particular regarding novel psychoacti...

    Authors: Evangelia Liakoni, Patrick C. Dolder, Katharina M. Rentsch and Matthias E. Liechti
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:25
  38. An area of ongoing controversy is the role adenosine to regulate vascular tone in conduit vessels that regulate compliance, and the role of nitric oxide (NO), potassium channels and receptor subtypes involved....

    Authors: Aryadi Arsyad and Geoffrey P. Dobson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:23
  39. Addiction, overdoses and deaths resulting from prescription opioids have increased dramatically over the last decade. In response, several manufacturers have developed formulations of opioids with abuse-deterr...

    Authors: Shannon L. Janoff, Nancy A. Perrin, Paul M. Coplan, Howard D. Chilcoat, Cynthia I. Campbell and Carla A. Green
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:21
  40. The choice of vasopressor use in the intensive care unit (ICU) depends primarily on provider preference. This study aims to describe the rate of vasopressor utilization and the trends of each vasoactive agent ...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Andrew M. Harrison, Perliveh Carrera, Narat Srivali, Wonngarm Kittamongkolchai, Aysen Erdogan and Kianoush B. Kashani
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:19
  41. Current guidelines for opioid dependence recommend daily maintenance of physical dependence with methadone or buprenorphine, and discourage abstinence due to the high risk of relapse and overdose. Extended-rel...

    Authors: Nikolaj Kunøe, Arild Opheim, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zhanna Gaulen, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Zill-e-Huma Latif and Lars Tanum
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:18
  42. Abatacept (ABA) is a fusion receptor protein containing the CTLA-4 domain that prevents the activation of naïve T cells by binding the CD80 and CD86 molecules expressed on the surface of dendritic cells, indic...

    Authors: Rossella Talotta, Fabiola Atzeni and Piercarlo Sarzi Puttini
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:17
  43. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by fat accumulation in the hepatocyte, inflammation, liver cell injury, and varying degrees of fibrosis, and can lead to oxidative stress in liver. Here, we...

    Authors: Ze-ran Yang, Hui-fang Wang, Tie-cheng Zuo, Li-li Guan and Ning Dai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:16
  44. Opioid maintenance treatment with methadone is regarded as gold standard in the therapy of opioid dependence. Identification of the ‘right’ methadone dose, however, remains challenging. We wanted to explore if...

    Authors: Stephan Walcher, John Koc, Volker Reichel, Frank Schlote, Uwe Verthein and Jens Reimer
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:15
  45. Chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has a detrimental effect on morbidity and mortality for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is therefore logical to attempt to eradicate new isolate...

    Authors: H. Kitt, W. Lenney and F. J. Gilchrist
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:14
  46. Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance....

    Authors: Josef Yayan, Beniam Ghebremedhin and Kurt Rasche
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:10
  47. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of arterial hypertension are different in obese and lean patients, hypertension guidelines do not include specific recommendations for obesity-related hypertension and, ...

    Authors: Mauro Cataldi, Ornella di Geronimo, Rossella Trio, Antonella Scotti, Andrea Memoli, Domenico Capone and Bruna Guida
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:9
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