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  1. Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations, in particular regarding novel psychoacti...

    Authors: Evangelia Liakoni, Patrick C. Dolder, Katharina M. Rentsch and Matthias E. Liechti
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:25
  2. An area of ongoing controversy is the role adenosine to regulate vascular tone in conduit vessels that regulate compliance, and the role of nitric oxide (NO), potassium channels and receptor subtypes involved....

    Authors: Aryadi Arsyad and Geoffrey P. Dobson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:23
  3. Addiction, overdoses and deaths resulting from prescription opioids have increased dramatically over the last decade. In response, several manufacturers have developed formulations of opioids with abuse-deterr...

    Authors: Shannon L. Janoff, Nancy A. Perrin, Paul M. Coplan, Howard D. Chilcoat, Cynthia I. Campbell and Carla A. Green
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:21
  4. The choice of vasopressor use in the intensive care unit (ICU) depends primarily on provider preference. This study aims to describe the rate of vasopressor utilization and the trends of each vasoactive agent ...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Andrew M. Harrison, Perliveh Carrera, Narat Srivali, Wonngarm Kittamongkolchai, Aysen Erdogan and Kianoush B. Kashani
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:19
  5. Current guidelines for opioid dependence recommend daily maintenance of physical dependence with methadone or buprenorphine, and discourage abstinence due to the high risk of relapse and overdose. Extended-rel...

    Authors: Nikolaj Kunøe, Arild Opheim, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zhanna Gaulen, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Zill-e-Huma Latif and Lars Tanum
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:18
  6. Abatacept (ABA) is a fusion receptor protein containing the CTLA-4 domain that prevents the activation of naïve T cells by binding the CD80 and CD86 molecules expressed on the surface of dendritic cells, indic...

    Authors: Rossella Talotta, Fabiola Atzeni and Piercarlo Sarzi Puttini
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:17
  7. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by fat accumulation in the hepatocyte, inflammation, liver cell injury, and varying degrees of fibrosis, and can lead to oxidative stress in liver. Here, we...

    Authors: Ze-ran Yang, Hui-fang Wang, Tie-cheng Zuo, Li-li Guan and Ning Dai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:16
  8. Opioid maintenance treatment with methadone is regarded as gold standard in the therapy of opioid dependence. Identification of the ‘right’ methadone dose, however, remains challenging. We wanted to explore if...

    Authors: Stephan Walcher, John Koc, Volker Reichel, Frank Schlote, Uwe Verthein and Jens Reimer
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:15
  9. Chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has a detrimental effect on morbidity and mortality for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is therefore logical to attempt to eradicate new isolate...

    Authors: H. Kitt, W. Lenney and F. J. Gilchrist
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:14
  10. Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance....

    Authors: Josef Yayan, Beniam Ghebremedhin and Kurt Rasche
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:10
  11. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of arterial hypertension are different in obese and lean patients, hypertension guidelines do not include specific recommendations for obesity-related hypertension and, ...

    Authors: Mauro Cataldi, Ornella di Geronimo, Rossella Trio, Antonella Scotti, Andrea Memoli, Domenico Capone and Bruna Guida
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:9
  12. Proarrhythmia assessment is one of the major concerns for regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical industry. ICH guidelines recommending preclinical tests have been established in attempt to eliminate the risk of ...

    Authors: Barbara Wiśniowska, Zofia Tylutki, Gabriela Wyszogrodzka and Sebastian Polak
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:12
  13. Symptoms of theophylline toxicity and factors that augment the risk of developing it are well documented in the literature. However these appear to be poorly considered in clinical practice. This case underlin...

    Authors: Michael E. Hopkins and Robert V. MacKenzie-Ross
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:13
  14. No studies have been conducted on rational drug use among children in Uzbekistan. This study aimed to analyze drug uses based on pharmaco-epidemiologic (PE) data from Regional Children’s Multi-Profile Medical ...

    Authors: Umida Ganieva, Ibrohim Alimdjanov, Marifat Ganieva and Tuhtasin Abdunazarov
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:11
  15. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics due to its high antibacterial potency, wide spectrum of activity and low potential for toxicity. However, the global trend shows misuse of this drug. Th...

    Authors: Alemayehu Sileshi, Admasu Tenna, Mamo Feyissa and Workineh Shibeshi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:7
  16. Antiplatelet therapy may attenuate the undesirable effects of platelets on the inflammatory cascades in critical illness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between aspirin therapy dur...

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Hani M. Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen M. Arabi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:5
  17. In hemodialysis patients, post-dialysis treatment with intravenous antibiotics permits even severe infections to be managed on an outpatient basis. Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with a broad sp...

    Authors: Eric Descombes, Filipe Martins, Ould Maouloud Hemett, Veronique Erard and Christian Chuard
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:4
  18. Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) constitutes a major hurdle in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of synthetic p-toluenesul...

    Authors: Armelle T. Mbaveng, Adriana Grozav Ignat, Bathélémy Ngameni, Valentin Zaharia, Bonaventure T. Ngadjui and Victor Kuete
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:3
  19. “Legal highs” are novel psychoactive substances that have evaded statutory control. Synthetic cannabinoid compounds with adamantane moieties have recently been identified, which have high potency at target rec...

    Authors: Graham McIlroy, Loretta Ford and Jawad M. Khan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:2
  20. One of the most unfortunate events toddlers may encounter during their early years of curiosity and experimentation is substance poisoning. The aim of the study was to evaluate the poison severity score and it...

    Authors: Menyfah Q. Alanazi, Majed Al-Jeraisy and Mahmoud Salam
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:1
  21. Access to free essential medicines is a critical component of universal health coverage. However availability of essential medicines is poor in India with more than two-third of the people having limited or no...

    Authors: Shankar Prinja, Pankaj Bahuguna, Jaya Prasad Tripathy and Rajesh Kumar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:43
  22. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of postoperative wound infections especially among patients undergoing orthopedics surgery. However, there is dearth of information on the clinical effectiveness...

    Authors: Joel M. Marwa, Isidor H. Ngayomela, Jeremiah Seni and Stephen E. Mshana
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:42
  23. An in vitro electrophysiological assay system, which can assess compound effects and thus show cardiotoxicity including arrhythmia risks of test drugs, is an essential method in the field of drug development a...

    Authors: Yuji Haraguchi, Atsushi Ohtsuki, Takayuki Oka and Tatsuya Shimizu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:39
  24. Cadmium (Cd) is a well known environmental and industrial toxicant causing damaging effects in numerous organs. In this study, we examined the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in modulating the Cd-induced apopt...

    Authors: Akeem O. Lawal, Jeanine L. Marnewick and Elizabeth M. Ellis
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:41
  25. Literature shows that continuity of care from a primary care physician is associated with better patient satisfaction and preventive care. This may also have an effect on patients’ use of antibiotics. This stu...

    Authors: Tai Pong Lam, Yuk Tsan Wun, Kwok Fai Lam and Kai Sing Sun
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:40
  26. Previously, we have demonstrated that human ABCB5 is a full-sized ATP-binding cassette transporter that shares strong homology with ABCB1/P-glycoprotein. ABCB5-transfected cells showed resistance to taxanes and a...

    Authors: Shingo Kondo, Keita Hongama, Kengo Hanaya, Ryota Yoshida, Takaaki Kawanobe, Kazuhiro Katayama, Kohji Noguchi and Yoshikazu Sugimoto
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:37
  27. There is increasing concern about the potential for nephrotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated long-term with nucleotide analogs.

    Authors: Aung Myint Thu, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Chatporn Kittitrakul, Apichart Nontprasert, Natthida Sriboonvorakul, Weerapong Phumratanaprapin, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Wattana Leowattana and Polrat Wilairatana
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:38
  28. Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in developing countries where the burden of MDR-TB is highest. Their protracted use in MDR-TB treatment...

    Authors: Evans L. Sagwa, Nunurai Ruswa, Farai Mavhunga, Timothy Rennie, Hubert G. M. Leufkens and Aukje K. Mantel-Teeuwisse
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:36
  29. Increasing recognition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Aboriginal children, adolescents and young adults is a public health challenge. We investigated the pattern of prescription stimu...

    Authors: Manonita Ghosh, C. D’Arcy J. Holman and David B. Preen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:35
  30. Interpreting clinical guideline adherence and the appropriateness of medication regimens requires consideration of individual patient and caregiver factors. Factors leading to initiation of a medication may di...

    Authors: Sophia L. Johnson, Mari Palta, Christie M. Bartels, Carolyn T. Thorpe, Jennifer M. Weiss and Maureen A. Smith
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:34
  31. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have recently become very popular particularly among the younger generation. These nicotine delivery devices are viewed as a preferable alternative to more conventional forms of ...

    Authors: Daniel Panitz, Harsha Swamy and Keith Nehrke
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:32
  32. Biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) hydrocodone bitartrate (HB)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325-mg tablets are formulated with gastroretentive ER drug delivery technology that has been associate...

    Authors: Krishna Devarakonda, Kenneth Kostenbader, Michael J. Giuliani and Jim L. Young
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:31
  33. Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of human copper metabolism characterized by copper accumulation in the liver due to impaired excretion of copper into the bile. Brain accumulation of copp...

    Authors: Salih Boga, Dhanpat Jain and Michael L. Schilsky
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:30
  34. Glucagon nasal powder (GNP), a novel intranasal formulation of glucagon being developed to treat insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia, contains synthetic glucagon (10 % w/w), beta-cyclodextrin, and dodecylphosphoc...

    Authors: Frederick E. Reno, Patrick Normand, Kevin McInally, Sherwin Silo, Patricia Stotland, Myriam Triest, Dolores Carballo and Claude Piché
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:29
  35. Despite the public health relevance of analgesic use, large-scale studies on this topic in Germany are lacking. This study describes the prevalence, trends, associations and patterns of use of prescription and...

    Authors: Giselle Sarganas, Amanda K. Buttery, Wanli Zhuang, Ingrid-Katharina Wolf, Daniel Grams, Angelika Schaffrath Rosario, Christa Scheidt-Nave and Hildtraud Knopf
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:28
  36. Gloriosa superba (GSb) is a highly poisonous plant and its toxicity is due to anti-mitotic effects of constituents such as colchicine and gloriosine on rapidly proliferating cells. Poisoning is known to cause ver...

    Authors: Ranjan Premaratna, Mindu S. Weerasinghe, Nuwan. P. Premawardana and H Janaka de Silva
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:27
  37. Human antibacterial exposure occur in different ways including consumption of animal and agricultural products as well as use of prescribed and non-prescribed agents. We estimated the prevalence and explored t...

    Authors: Moses Ocan, Yukari C. Manabe, Hannington Baluku, Esther Atukwase, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng and Celestino Obua
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:26
  38. The innate immune receptor RIG-I detects viral RNA within the cytosol of infected cells. Activation of RIG-I leads to the induction of antiviral cytokines, in particular type I interferon, the inhibition of a ...

    Authors: Martin Coenen, Annette Viktoria Hinze, Martin Mengel, Christine Fuhrmann, Bastian Lüdenbach, Julian Zimmermann, Verena Dykstra, Rolf Fimmers, Roberto Viviani, Julia Stingl, Stefan Holdenrieder, Marcus Müller, Gunther Hartmann and Christoph Coch
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:25
  39. Phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes (PSL) have been shown to reduce inflammation in experimental models of acute arthritis, by mimicking the apoptotic process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the eff...

    Authors: Paulo CM Urbano, Vanete T. Soccol, Vivian N. Teixeira, Patrícia G. Oliveira, Lidiane I. Filippin, Wagner H. Bonat, Carolina de Oliveira, Gustavo R. Rossi, Ricardo M. Xavier and Valderilio F. Azevedo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:24
  40. Inability to predict the therapeutic effect of a drug in individual pain patients prolongs the process of drug and dose finding until satisfactory pharmacotherapy can be achieved. Many chronic pain conditions ...

    Authors: Andreas Siegenthaler, Jürg Schliessbach, Pascal H. Vuilleumier, Peter Juni, Hanns U. Zeilhofer, Lars Arendt-Nielsen and Michele Curatolo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:23
  41. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors are the first-line treatment for diabetic patients with hypertension. However,...

    Authors: Hiroki Miyazaki, Akira Babazono, Takumi Nishi, Toshiki Maeda, Takuya Imatoh, Masayoshi Ichiba and Hiroshi Une
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:22
  42. Authors: Steven S Pullen, Kathleen A Lincoln, Paul C Harrison, Hongxing Chen, Hong Wang, Holly Clifford, HuSheng Qian, Diane Wong, Chris Sarko, Jehrod Brenneman, Ryan Fryer, Jeremy Richman, Glenn A Reinhart and Carine Boustany
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16(Suppl 1):A4

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 16 Supplement 1

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