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  1. Remogliflozin etabonate (RE) is the prodrug of remogliflozin, a selective inhibitor of the renal sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), which could increase urine glucose excretion (UGE) and lower pla...

    Authors: Anita Kapur, Robin O’Connor-Semmes, Elizabeth K Hussey, Robert L Dobbins, Wenli Tao, Marcus Hompesch, Glenn A Smith, Joseph W Polli, Charles D James Jr, Imao Mikoshiba and Derek J Nunez
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:26
  2. Rifampicin remains one of the first-line drugs used in tuberculosis therapy. This drug´s potential to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 oxidative enzyme system increases the risk of drug-drug interactions. Th...

    Authors: Maria AP Martins, Adriano MM Reis, Mariana F Sales, Vandack Nobre, Daniel D Ribeiro, Manoel OC Rocha and Antônio LP Ribeiro
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:27
  3. The sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) is expressed in absorptive epithelia of the renal tubules. Remogliflozin etabonate (RE) is the prodrug of remogliflozin, the active entity that inhibits SG...

    Authors: Elizabeth K Hussey, Anita Kapur, Robin O’Connor-Semmes, Wenli Tao, Bryan Rafferty, Joseph W Polli, Charles D James Jr and Robert L Dobbins
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:25
  4. In August 2012 the BMC Series journals BMC Clinical Pharmacology and BMC Pharmacology merged to form a new title BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. The editors of BMC Clinical Pharmacology and BMC Pharmacology w...

    Authors: Christopher Morrey
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:21
  5. By definition, a generic product is considered interchangeable with the innovator brand product. Controversy exists about interchangeability, and attention is predominantly directed to contaminants. In particu...

    Authors: Urs E Gasser, Anton Fischer, Jan P Timmermans and Isabelle Arnet
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:24
  6. Astrocytes are responsible for numerous aspects of metabolic support, nutrition, control of the ion and neurotransmitter environment in central nervous system (CNS). Failure by astrocytes to support essential ...

    Authors: Marta Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz and Michael Aschner
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:23
  7. Analysis of the prognostic values of blood pH and lactate and plasma metformin concentrations in severe metformin-associated lactic acidosis may help to resolve the following paradox: metformin provides impres...

    Authors: Farshad Kajbaf and Jean-Daniel Lalau
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:22
  8. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the commonest cause of acute liver injury in Europe and North America. The intravenous (IV) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) regimen introduced in the 1970s has continued ef...

    Authors: H K Ruben Thanacoody, Alasdair Gray, James W Dear, Judy Coyle, Euan A Sandilands, David J Webb, Steff Lewis, Michael Eddleston, Simon HL Thomas and D Nicholas Bateman
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:20
  9. Dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients is challenging. It becomes even more difficult if renal or hepatic impairment ensue. Modern means of renal replacement therapy are capable of removing antibioti...

    Authors: Christian Clajus, W Nikolaus Kühn-Velten, Julius J Schmidt, Johan M Lorenzen, Daniel Pietsch, Gernot Beutel and Jan T Kielstein
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:19
  10. Platinum derivatives are used widely for the treatment of many cancers. However, the toxicity that is observed makes imperative the need for new drugs, or new combinations. Anvirzel™ is an extract which has be...

    Authors: Panagiotis Apostolou, Maria Toloudi, Marina Chatziioannou, Eleni Ioannou, Dennis R Knocke, Joe Nester, Dimitrios Komiotis and Ioannis Papasotiriou
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:18
  11. In vitro pharmacology of ligands is typically assessed using a variety of molecular assays based on predetermined molecular events in living cells. Many ligands including opioid ligands pose the ability to bind ...

    Authors: Megan Morse, Haiyan Sun, Elizabeth Tran, Robert Levenson and Ye Fang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:17
  12. Healthcare professional’s knowledge and attitudes to adverse drug reaction (ADR) and ADR reporting play vital role to report any cases of ADR. Positive attitudes may favour ADR reporting by healthcare professi...

    Authors: Santosh KC, Pramote Tragulpiankit, Sarun Gorsanan and I Ralph Edwards
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:16
  13. Atorvastatin (a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor) is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which is recognized for its potential hepatotoxicity. This study investigated in vitro effect...

    Authors: Ali S Alfazari, Bayan Al-Dabbagh, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Alia Albawardi and Abdul-Kader Souid
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:15
  14. The CC-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is thought potentially to play a critical role in asthma pathogenesis due to its ability to recruit type 2 T-helper lymphocytes to the inflamed airways. Therefore, CCR4 provi...

    Authors: Anthony Cahn, Simon Hodgson, Robert Wilson, Jonathan Robertson, Joanna Watson, Misba Beerahee, Steve C Hughes, Graeme Young, Rebecca Graves, David Hall, Sjoerd van Marle and Roberto Solari
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:14
  15. Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth ...

    Authors: Kathryn A Ramsey, Alexander N Larcombe, Peter D Sly and Graeme R Zosky
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:13
  16. Previous studies have established a correlation between vancomycin troughs and nephrotoxicity. However, data are currently lacking regarding the effect of guideline-recommended weight-based dosing on nephrotox...

    Authors: Ronald G Hall II, Kathleen A Hazlewood, Sara D Brouse, Christopher A Giuliano, Krystal K Haase, Chistopher R Frei, Nicolas A Forcade, Todd Bell, Roger J Bedimo and Carlos A Alvarez
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:12
  17. The spatial organization of the genome is being evaluated as a novel indicator of toxicity in conjunction with drug-induced global DNA hypomethylation and concurrent chromatin reorganization. 3D quantitative D...

    Authors: Arkadiusz Gertych, Jin Ho Oh, Kolja A Wawrowsky, Daniel J Weisenberger and Jian Tajbakhsh
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:11
  18. Antipsychotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), despite their limited efficacy and concerns about safety. The aim of this study was to describ...

    Authors: Maria Gustafsson, Stig Karlsson and Hugo Lövheim
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:10
  19. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in multiple copies per cell and undergoes dramatic amplification during development. The impacts of mtDNA damage incurred early in development are not well understood, espe...

    Authors: Maxwell CK Leung, John P Rooney, Ian T Ryde, Autumn J Bernal, Amanda S Bess, Tracey L Crocker, Alex Q Ji and Joel N Meyer
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:9
  20. Drugs not commonly considered to be cardioactive agents may cause prolongation of the QT interval with resultant torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. This form of drug toxicity often causes cardia...

    Authors: Vincenzo Lariccia, Alessandra Moraca, Marco Marini, Annamaria Assunta Nasti, Ilaria Battistoni, Salvatore Amoroso and Gian Piero Perna
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:8
  21. This study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intravenous infusion of CA4P in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Authors: Mohamed A Ibrahim, Diana V Do, Yasir J Sepah, Syed M Shah, Elizabeth Van Anden, Gulnar Hafiz, J Kevin Donahue, Richard Rivers, Jai Balkissoon, James T Handa, Peter A Campochiaro and Quan Dong Nguyen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:7
  22. Glibenclamide (Gli) binds to the sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) that is a regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels). Binding of Gli to SUR produces the closure of KATP channels and the ...

    Authors: Mariel Núñez, Vanina Medina, Graciela Cricco, Máximo Croci, Claudia Cocca, Elena Rivera, Rosa Bergoc and Gabriela Martín
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:6
  23. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes ai...

    Authors: Márcia Germana Alves de Araújo Lobo, Sandra Maria Botelho Pinheiro, José Gerley Díaz Castro, Valéria Gomes Momenté and Maria-Cristina S Pranchevicius
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:5
  24. Two recent models are in use for analysis of allosteric drug action at receptor sites remote from orthosteric binding sites. One is an allosteric two-state mechanical model derived in 2000 by David Hall. The o...

    Authors: Niels Bindslev
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:4
  25. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins are a small group of heterodimeric transcription factors that play an important role in regulating the inflammatory, immune, and apoptotic responses. NF-κB activity is su...

    Authors: Chung-Hang Leung, Daniel Shiu-Hin Chan, Ying-Wei Li, Wang-Fun Fong and Dik-Lung Ma
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:3
  26. Two theories attempt to explain the changes observed in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in chagasic cardiomyopathy. The neurogenic theory proposes that receptor changes are due to loss of intrac...

    Authors: Rafael Bonfante-Cabarcas, Erlymar López Hincapié, Eliezer Jiménez Hernández, Ruth Fonseca Zambrano, Lady Ferrer Mancini, Marcos Durand Mena and Claudina Rodríguez-Bonfante
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:2
  27. Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, prima...

    Authors: Suzanne Dunne, Bill Shannon, Colum Dunne and Walter Cullen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 14:1
  28. The synergistic combination of interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and IFN gamma results in more potent in vitro biological effects mediated by both IFNs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate by first time the pha...

    Authors: Yanelda García-Vega, Idrian García-García, Sonia E Collazo-Caballero, Egla E Santely-Pravia, Alieski Cruz-Ramírez, Ángela D Tuero-Iglesias, Cristian Alfonso-Alvarado, Mileidys Cabrera-Placeres, Nailet Castro-Basart, Yaquelín Duncan-Roberts, Tania I Carballo-Treto, Josanne Soto-Matos, Yoandy Izquierdo-Toledo, Dania Vázquez-Blomquist, Elizeth García-Iglesias and Iraldo Bello-Rivero
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:20
  29. The new European pharmacovigilance legislation has been suggested as marking the beginning of a new chapter in drug safety, making patients an important part of pharmacovigilance. In Sweden since 2008 it has b...

    Authors: Andreas Vilhelmsson, Tommy Svensson, Anna Meeuwisse and Anders Carlsten
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:19
  30. To examine the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who remained symptomatic (ADHD Rating Scale IV [ADHD-RS-IV] total score >18) on amphe...

    Authors: Thomas Babcock, Bryan Dirks, Ben Adeyi and Brian Scheckner
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:18
  31. Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to in...

    Authors: Oluseyi C Ayinde, Sunday Ogunnowo and Rita A Ogedegbe
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:17
  32. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease characterized by a largely irreversible airflow obstruction and a persistent, excessive inflammatory response. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are increased...

    Authors: Marianne Jennifer Ratcliffe and Iain Gordon Dougall
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:15
  33. The objectives of the current study were to determine amikacin pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing treatment with continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to d...

    Authors: Deirdre M D’Arcy, Eoin Casey, Caitriona M Gowing, Maria B Donnelly and Owen I Corrigan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:14
  34. Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mor...

    Authors: Yoshinori Inagaki, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Keiko Kataoka, Naoya Matsuhashi and Kazuhisa Sekimizu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:13
  35. Cocaine exposure has been reported to alter central μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expression in vivo. The present study employed an in vitro cellular model to explore possible mechanisms that may be involved in this ac...

    Authors: Warren Winick-Ng, Francesco Leri and Bettina E Kalisch
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:11
  36. The widespread use of natural health products is also a problem, as they could interact with prescribed drugs in patients. One commonly used product is glucosamine for osteoarthritis and some reports have foun...

    Authors: Robert Eggertsen, Åke Andreasson and Lennart Andrén
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:10
  37. The disappointing clinical failures of five topical vaginal microbicides have provided new insights into factors that impact microbicide safety and efficacy. Specifically, the greater risk for human immunodefi...

    Authors: Karissa Lozenski, Robert Ownbey, Brian Wigdahl, Tina Kish-Catalone and Fred C Krebs
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:9
Reviewer acknowledgments

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