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  1. Ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic and analgesic agent, is known to improve the analgesic efficacy of opioids and to attenuate central sensitisation and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Clinical use is, however, ...

    Authors: Martyn Harvey, Jamie Sleigh, Logan Voss, Mike Bickerdike, Ivaylo Dimitrov and William Denny
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:85
  2. Exposure to vinylcyclohexene (VCH) and methylmercury (MeHg+) can induce oxidative stress and gene modulation. Several studies have been evaluating the effects of VCH and MeHg+, but little is known about interacti...

    Authors: Bruna Candia Piccoli, Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Cláudia Sirlene Oliveira, Fernanda D’Avila da Silva, Michael Aschner and João Batista Teixeira da Rocha
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):83

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  3. Tamoxifen is considered a prodrug of its active metabolite endoxifen, which is dependent on the CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes. Tamoxifen pharmacokinetic variability influences endoxifen exposure and, consequently, ...

    Authors: João Paulo Bianchi Ximenez, Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade, Maria Paula Marques, Eduardo Barbosa Coelho, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz and Vera Lucia Lanchote
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):81

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  4. Nickel and nickel-containing compounds (NCC) are known human carcinogens. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced malignant transformation remain unknown. Proposed mechanisms suggest that n...

    Authors: Luisa Jiménez-Vidal, Pedro Espitia-Pérez, José Torres-Ávila, Dina Ricardo-Caldera, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Claudia Galeano-Páez, Karina Pastor-Sierra and Lyda Espitia-Pérez
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):78

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  5. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main exogenous inductor of skin damage and so photoprotection is important to control skin disorders. The Antarctic moss Sanionia uncinata is an important source of antioxidants ...

    Authors: Andréia da Silva Fernandes, Lara Barroso Brito, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues Oliveira, Elisa Raquel Anastácio Ferraz, Heitor Evangelista, José Luiz Mazzei and Israel Felzenszwalb
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):77

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  6. Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease. Although the number of people infected is very high, the only drugs available to treat CD, nifurtimox (Nfx) and benznidazole, are highly toxic, particularly...

    Authors: Fabiana Gomes Nascimento Soares, Gabriela Göethel, Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Elisa Sauer, Estefania Birriel, Javier Varela, Itamar Luís Gonçalves, Gilsane Von Poser, Mercedes González, Daniel Fábio Kawano, Fávero Reisdorfer Paula, Eduardo Borges de Melo, Solange Cristina Garcia, Hugo Cerecetto and Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):76

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  7. Gasoline is a complex mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, in which aromatic compounds, such as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) feature as the main constituents. Simultaneous exposure to these...

    Authors: Angela Maria Moro, Elisa Sauer, Natália Brucker, Mariele Feiffer Charão, Bruna Gauer, Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento, Gabriela Goethel, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte and Solange Cristina Garcia
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):75

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  8. For many decades, the sting of Samsun ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis) has been a serious clinical challenge for the people living in some of the major Middle East and Asian countries. In the present study, the th...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Alhazza, Hossam Ebaid, Bahaa Abdel-Salam, Jameel H. Al-Tamimi, Iftekhar Hassan, Ahmed M. Rady and Ashraf M. A. Mashaly
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:84
  9. Anti-neoplastic agents are widely used in the treatment of cancer and some non-neoplastic diseases. These drugs have been proved to be carcinogens, teratogens, and mutagens. Concern exists regarding the possib...

    Authors: Maral Ramazani, Razieh Pourahmad Jaktaji, Farshad H. Shirazi, Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Ahmad Salimi and Jalal Pourahmad
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:74
  10. Timolol Maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker that is commonly used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Despite its topical administration, ophthalmic timolol enters systemic circulation and produces a ...

    Authors: Zhuoying Wang, Ian Denys, Feng Chen, Lijie Cai, Xuecui Wang, Daniel R. Kapusta, Yongliang Lv and Juan Gao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:73
  11. As a new generation antihistamine, fexofenadine has been widely used in allergic diseases. However, there is still a lack of collective evidence regarding the antihistamine effects and safety profiles of fexof...

    Authors: Cheng-zhi Huang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Jian Wang, Yue Luo and Hua Peng
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:72
  12. Dexmedetomidine was proved to mitigate bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity but mechanism of this ability is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiot...

    Authors: Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin, Tingting Lin, Xixi Cai, Linmin Pan, Shi Wang, Yaoyao Cai and Hongfei Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:70
  13. Ability to manage urges to smoke is fundamental to maximizing the chances of success in smoking cessation. Previous studies have linked a higher dose of nicotine in nicotine replacement therapy to a higher suc...

    Authors: Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Roland Perfekt, Elin Hall and Holger Kraiczi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:69
  14. Eribulin improves survival in pre-treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). However, limited data exist on co-morbidities and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy. The purpose of this study was to r...

    Authors: Milana Bergamino Sirvén, Adela Fernández-Ortega, Agostina Stradella, Idoia Morilla, Catalina Falo, Silvia Vázquez, Roser Castany, Rafael Villanueva, Sabela Recalde, Valentí Navarro Pérez, Miguel Gil-Gil and Sonia Pernas
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:68
  15. Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, although involving two different tumour suppressor genes (neurofibromin and merlin, respectively), are both cancer predisposition syndromes that disproportionately affect cells of ne...

    Authors: Yu-chi Shen, Caroline Arellano-Garcia, Rosa E. Menjivar, Ethan M. Jewett, Wolfgang Dohle, Sofiia Karchugina, Jonathan Chernoff, Barry V. L. Potter and Kate F. Barald
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:67
  16. Colchicine is a clinical medicine used for relief from gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Because of its toxic effects, intravenous injection of colchicine has been banned, but it is still widely administe...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Yingjun Xie, Minyi Yan, Qianying Pan, Yi Liang and Xiaofang Sun
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:66
  17. The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, lead...

    Authors: Milo Gatti, Emanuel Raschi and Fabrizio De Ponti
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:65
  18. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS. ART regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment p...

    Authors: Zerihun Ataro, Birhanu Motbaynor, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Mekonnen Sisay, Tewodros Tesfa, Habtamu Mitiku, Dadi Marami, Zelalem Teklemariam and Zewdneh Shewamene
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:63
  19. Cardiovascular events (CVEs) was considered as one of the primary cause to reduce the quality of life in breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) treatment, which has not been sufficiently addres...

    Authors: Yang He, Jianhua Zhang, Guofang Shen, Lin Liu, Qingwei Zhao, Xiaoyang Lu, Hongyu Yang and Dongsheng Hong
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:62
  20. In recent years, targeted therapy has received widespread attention. Among these therapies, anti-angiogenic targeted drugs have become one of the hotspots of research. Apatinib is a novel oral small molecule a...

    Authors: Guohui Liu, Chunbo Wang, Yunlong He and Mingyan E
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:61
  21. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting practices by health care professionals remain poor. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are perceived as safe; however, they can also cause ADRs. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Josipa Bukic, Doris Rusic, Petar Mas, Deni Karabatic, Josko Bozic, Ana Seselja Perisin, Dario Leskur, Darko Krnic, Sinisa Tomic and Darko Modun
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:60
  22. Studies have indicated that changed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in epithelial cells from the kidney could affect the renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). As Angiotensin II (An...

    Authors: Hao Huang, Yanqin Fan, Zhao Gao, Wei Wang, Ning Shao, Lu Zhang, Yingjie Yang, Weifang Zhu, Zhaowei Chen, Jijia Hu and Guohua Ding
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:59
  23. Among adipose-derived factors, adipocytokines play roles as hormones and signaling mediators for apoptotic pathway. Among of them, vaspin, regulates the metabolism of adipose tissue itself as an endocrine orga...

    Authors: Magdalena Skonieczna, Dorota Hudy, Tomasz Hejmo, Rafal J. Buldak, Małgorzata Adamiec and Michal Kukla
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:58
  24. Poncirin is flavanone derivative (isolated from Poncirus trifoliata) with known pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-colitic. The present study aimed to exp...

    Authors: Ruqayya Afridi, Ashraf Ullah Khan, Sidra Khalid, Bushra Shal, Hina Rasheed, Muhammad Zia Ullah, Omer Shehzad, Yeong Shik Kim and Salman Khan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:57
  25. There are evidences that chlorogenic acid (CGA) has antidepressant effects, however the underlying molecular mechanism has not been well understood. The aim of the study was to explore the neuroprotective effe...

    Authors: Xiaowen Shi, Nian Zhou, Jieyi Cheng, Xunlong Shi, Hai Huang, Mingmei Zhou and Haiyan Zhu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:56
  26. Pharmaceutical opioid analgesic use continues to rise and is associated with potentially preventable harm including hospitalisation for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spatial detection of opioid-related ADRs c...

    Authors: Wei Du, Shanley Chong, Andrew J. McLachlan, Lan Luo, Nicholas Glasgow and Danijela Gnjidic
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:55
  27. The investigation of food-drug and plant-drug interactions has become increasingly important. In case of antibiotics, it is essential to achieve and maintain a plasma concentration sufficient for the antimicro...

    Authors: Tivadar Kiss, Zoltán Timár, Andrea Szabó, Anita Lukács, Viktória Velky, Gábor Oszlánczi, Edina Horváth, István Takács, István Zupkó and Dezső Csupor
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:54
  28. Apixaban effectively lowers the risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Systemic exposure to a given apixaban dose depends on multiple clearance pathway...

    Authors: Andrea Huppertz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Chris Dumschat, Kathrin I. Foerster, Jürgen Burhenne, Johanna Weiss, David Czock, Jan C. Purrucker, Timolaos Rizos and Walter E. Haefeli
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:53
  29. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for psychotic disorders provide advantages in treatment compliance, but data on their use in pregnancy are very limited. We present a clinical case of aripiprazole L...

    Authors: Isabel Ballester-Gracia, Miriam Pérez-Almarcha, Ana Galvez-Llompart and Miguel Hernandez-Viadel
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:52
  30. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been attributed to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin which adversely affect disease outcome leading to increased cancer related morbidity. The clin...

    Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Fazal Subhan, Nisar Ahmad and Robert D. E. Sewell
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:51
  31. Tigecycline, the first glycylcycline-class drug, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. We describe a case of sustained and severe hypoglycemia in a patient ...

    Authors: Yixin Chen, Lin Li, Nan Zhang and Hong Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:50
  32. The progress of mass, community-directed, treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control was disrupted by severe adverse effects (SAE) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study aimed at...

    Authors: Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Daniel Muteba, Paul Mansiangi, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga and Yves Coppieters
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:49
  33. Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis enzyme inhibitors are the mainstays of pharmacological treatment. Unfortunately, they...

    Authors: Megan McGrath, Alissa Hofmann and Douglas E. Raines
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:48
  34. MDMA causes serotonin (5-HT) syndrome immediately after administration and serotonergic injury in a few days or weeks. However, a serotonin syndrome is not always followed by serotonergic injury, indicating di...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Shokry, Connor J. Shields, John J. Callanan, Zhiyuan Ma and Rui Tao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:47
  35. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a significant health issue affecting Aboriginal Australians. Long-term hearing loss can cause communication problems, educational disadvantage, and social isolation. ...

    Authors: Christine Wigger, Amanda Jane Leach, Jemima Beissbarth, Victor Oguoma, Ruth Lennox, Sandra Nelson, Hemi Patel, Mark Chatfield, Kathy Currie, Harvey Coates, Keith Edwards, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Kim Hare, Paul Torzillo, Steven Tong and Peter Morris
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:46
  36. Pneumonia patients are usually hospitalized due to severe nature of the disease or for the management of comorbid illnesses or associated symptoms. Such patients are prescribed with multiple medications which ...

    Authors: Sidra Noor, Mohammad Ismail and Zahid Ali
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:45
  37. This analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between drug application and mortality rate in Chinese older coronary artery disease (CAD)/chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with and without low g...

    Authors: Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Ping Ye and Leiming Luo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:44
  38. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is a widely used chemical that has adverse effects on animal development and reproduction. The current research aimed to evaluate the effect of BPA on the in vitro ma...

    Authors: Qian Li and Zhenjun Zhao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:43
  39. KCNH family of potassium channels is responsible for diverse physiological functions ranging from the regulation of neuronal excitability and cardiac contraction to the regulation of cancer progression. KCNH c...

    Authors: Ze-Jun Wang, Purushottam B. Tiwari, Aykut Üren and Tinatin I. Brelidze
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:42
  40. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant health burden that increases the risk of adverse events. Currently, there is no validated models to predict risk of mortality among CKD patients experienced advers...

    Authors: Monica Danial, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ong Loke Meng, Yoon Chee Kin and Amer Hayat Khan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:41
  41. Data is limited on comparison of acute and chronic methotrexate (MTX) poisoning. Methotrexate is an anti-folate drug that may be prescribed in some malignant or chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the ...

    Authors: Arman Ahmadzadeh, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Seyed Kaveh Hadeiy and Parinaz Parhizgar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:39
  42. This study aimed to examine femoral bone microstructure of mice after single and simultaneous administration to acrylamide and ethanol since both substances are often consumed separately and/or together by hum...

    Authors: Anna Sarocka, Veronika Kovacova, Radoslav Omelka, Birgit Grosskopf, Edyta Kapusta, Zofia Goc, Grzegorz Formicki and Monika Martiniakova
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:38
  43. Treatment guidelines suggest either a low-dose or high-dose approach when prescribing amikacin for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM PD), but data supporting the low-dose approach are limited...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Aznar, Theodore K. Marras, Ahmed Said Elshal, Mahtab Mehrabi and Sarah K. Brode
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:37
  44. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) present a significant source of adverse drug reactions. Despite being one of the commonly cited risks to patient safety, prevention of DDIs still poses a challenge to healthcare s...

    Authors: Anna Somogyi-Végh, Zsófia Ludányi, Ábel Erdős and Lajos Botz
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:36
  45. Wound infections are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Specifically, surgical site infections are the third most commonly reported nosocomial infections accounting approximat...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Teshager Worku and Dumessa Edessa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:35
  46. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes in clinical settings and to assess its effect modification (heterogeneity) among patients with various medical...

    Authors: Keiko Yamazaki, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Teduka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Yayoi Nishida and Satoshi Asai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:34
  47. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are an emerging threat in this century. Epinecidin-1 is a multi-functional Antimicrobial Peptide (AMP) produced by Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has been shown to ha...

    Authors: Alireza Neshani, Hosna Zare, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eidgahi, Azad Khaledi and Kiarash Ghazvini
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:33
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