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  1. Methadone is well known for its long duration of action and propensity for mortality after an overdose. The present research was aimed at evaluating the clinical manifestations and time trends of methadone exp...

    Authors: Omid Mehrpour, Christopher Hoyte, Alireza Amirabadizadeh and Jeffrey Brent
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:53
  2. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) causes the vast proportion of excess mortality for patients with diabetes. Novel therapeutic approaches slowing down its incidence is still lacking. Psoralen is the major active ingre...

    Authors: Yongtao Lin, Lili Zhong, Hailun Li, Yong Xu, Xiang Li and Donghui Zheng
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:52
  3. To assess adherence to and preference for vitamin D substitution with different pharmaceutical forms and frequencies of administration.

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Rothen, Jonas Rutishauser, Philipp N. Walter, Kurt E. Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:51
  4. A trough concentration (Cmin) ≥20 μg/mL of teicoplanin is recommended for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, sufficient clinical evidence to support t...

    Authors: Takashi Ueda, Yoshio Takesue, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Kaoru Ichiki, Kaori Ishikawa, Yoshiko Takai, Kumiko Yamada, Toshie Tsuchida, Naruhito Otani, Yoshiko Takahashi, Mika Ishihara, Shingo Takubo, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino and Takeshi Kimura
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:50
  5. The success rate of rescue is extremely low in acute paraquat poisoning. This study aimed to assess whether strengthened hemoperfusion (SHP) combined with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) improves p...

    Authors: An-bao Chen, Fang Li, E-mu Di, Xiao Zhang, Qun-yuan Zhao and Jing Wen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:49
  6. Prescription of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) to childhood/adolescent has exponentially increased in recent years, which was associated with the greater risk of significant weight gain and dysli...

    Authors: Xuemei Liu, Xiyu Feng, Chao Deng, Lu Liu, Yanping Zeng and Chang-Hua Hu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:48
  7. In acute intoxication, carbamazepine concentration above 40 mcg/ml is associated with a risk of severe neurological consequences, including depressed consciousness, respiratory depression, cardiac conduction d...

    Authors: Ayala Hirsch, Maor Wanounou, Amichai Perlman, Bruria Hirsh-Raccah and Mordechai Muszkat
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:47
  8. Paracetamol/Orphenadrine is a fixed dose combination containing 35 mg orphenadrine and 450 mg paracetamol. It has analgesic and muscle relaxant properties and is widely available as generics. This study is con...

    Authors: Kit Yee Cheah, Kar Yee Mah, Lai Hui Pang, Shi Min Ng, Jia Woei Wong, Siew Siew Tan, Hong Zhe Tan and Kah Hay Yuen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:45
  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs’ biliary effects were limit...

    Authors: Boyu Li, Yanjin Hu, Guang Wang and Lihong Liu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:44
  10. Progressive bone pain and fracture and abnormal positron emission tomography combined with a computed tomography are main reasons for the oncologists suspecting bone tumor. During the patient’s medical treatme...

    Authors: Qian Xiang, Zhiyan Liu, Yanyan Yu, Hanxu Zhang, Qiufen Xie, Guangyan Mu, Jianhua Zhang, Xinan Cen and Yimin Cui
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:43
  11. Population-based studies suggest increasing rates of concurrent use of vaping products that contain either nicotine or cannabinoids. The aim of this pilot study was to test in vitro the acute inhalation toxici...

    Authors: Noel J. Leigh and Maciej L. Goniewicz
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:42
  12. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2–3% of the population worldwide. Hyperproliferative keratinocytes were thought to be an amplifier of inflammatory response, thereby sustaining persis...

    Authors: Jintao Gao, Junfan Guo, Yuejuan Nong, Wenfei Mo, Huanan Fang, Jing Mi, Qi Qi and Mengjuan Yang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:41
  13. Fluoroquinolones are used for conditions including sinusitis, bronchitis, and urinary tract infections. It has been suggested that exposure to fluoroquinolones for these conditions is associated with disabilit...

    Authors: Marsha A. Wilcox, Angelina Villasis-Keever, Anthony G. Sena, Christopher Knoll and Daniel Fife
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:40
  14. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation in the liver, due to a chronic injury, and subsequent alteration of the normal architecture of the liver. Even though there is a huge effort to...

    Authors: Abraham Nigussie Mekuria, Michael N. Routledge, Yun Yun Gong and Mekonnen Sisay
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:39
  15. Rivaroxaban, a novel oral anticoagulant drug, is widely used in clinical practice. There is no standardized laboratory monitoring for rivaroxaban, and its plasma concentration in Chinese patients with deep vei...

    Authors: Ying Li, Liping Du, Xiaowan Tang, Yuexin Chen and Dan Mei
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:38
  16. Despite its cardiotoxicity doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of paediatric malignancies. Current treatment regimens appear to be suboptimal as treatment strategies vary and do not follow a clear pha...

    Authors: Christian Siebel, Gudrun Würthwein, Claudia Lanvers-Kaminsky, Nicolas André, Frank Berthold, Ilaria Castelli, Pascal Chastagner, François Doz, Martin English, Gabriele Escherich, Michael C. Frühwald, Norbert Graf, Andreas H. Groll, Antonio Ruggiero, Georg Hempel and Joachim Boos
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:37
  17. There are no reports on investigations of the characteristics of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for pediatric patients in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) and the utility of databas...

    Authors: Aoi Noda, Takamasa Sakai, Taku Obara, Makoto Miyazaki, Masami Tsuchiya, Gen Oyanagi, Yuriko Murai and Nariyasu Mano
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:36
  18. Air pollution increases the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis (AS) is the pathological basis of most CVD, and the progression of atherosclerosis and the increase of fragi...

    Authors: Siqi Wang, Feifei Wang, Lixin Yang, Qin Li, Yao Huang, Zhiyuan Cheng, Hongqian Chu, Yiming Song, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao and Xuetao Wei
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:34
  19. It is prudent that novel classes of antibiotics be urgently developed to manage the WHO prioritized multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens posing an unprecedented medical crisis. Simultaneously, multiple essenti...

    Authors: Suprim Tha, Sapana Shakya, Rajani Malla and Pramod Aryal
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:33
  20. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Among which nuclear estrogen receptor (nER) negative breast cancer is always with m...

    Authors: Danning Shi, Piwen Zhao, Lixia Cui, Hongbo Li, Liping Sun, Jianzhao Niu and Meng Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:32
  21. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the post percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) adverse bleeding events, stent thrombosis, stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes in a population...

    Authors: Manyun Long, Ziliang Ye, Jing Zheng, Wuxian Chen and Lang Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:31
  22. Fenoverine is a spasmolytic drug that has been used to treat abdominal pain. Although sporadic case reports or case series of rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine have been published, there are no studies...

    Authors: Junhyeong Cho, Jeonggu Na, Eunjin Bae, Tae Won Lee, Ha Nee Jang, Hyun Seop Cho, Se-Ho Chang and Dong Jun Park
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:30
  23. Living organisms are frequently exposed to more than one xenobiotic at a time either by ingestion of contaminated food/fodder or due to house-hold practices, occupational hazards or through environment. These ...

    Authors: Rajesh Mandil, Atul Prakash, Anu Rahal, S. P. Singh, Deepak Sharma, Rahul Kumar and Satish Kumar Garg
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:29
  24. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects on laboratory parameters among monotherapy with five DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Authors: Yayoi Nishida, Yasuo Takahashi, Kotoe Tezuka, Hayato Akimoto, Tomohiro Nakayama and Satoshi Asai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:28
  25. The present study aimed to develop and validate a rapid, selective, and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry separation method for the simultaneous determination of the...

    Authors: Mengchun Chen, Wei Sun, Zhe Wang, Chengke Huang, Guoxin Hu, Yijie Chen and Ledan Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:27
  26. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype with a poor prognosis. In the phase III PACIFIC study, durvalumab significantly improved progression-free survival and overa...

    Authors: Kazumi Nishino, Kei Kunimasa, Madoka Kimura, Takako Inoue, Motohiro Tamiya, Hanako Kuhara and Toru Kumagai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:26
  27. Older adults are more prone to develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) since they exhibit numerous risk factors. The first aim was to analyse the number of spontaneous ADR reports regarding older adults (> 65) i...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Katja S. Just, Matthias Schmid, Julia C. Stingl and Bernhardt Sachs
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:25
  28. The study aimed to evaluate and compare the leukocyte chemotactic activities of various brimonidine tartrate (BT) eye drop formulations.

    Authors: Ruiz Simonato Alonso, Helena Parente Solari, Eduardo de França Damasceno, Miguel Noel Nascentes Burnier Jr. and Marcelo Palis Ventura
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:24
  29. In 2016, in a lead poisoning outbreak in Iran, physicians reported thousands of opium users who presented to emergency departments (EDs) with intractable severe abdominal pain which did not respond to any narc...

    Authors: Masoud Mayel, Saleh Hamzeh, Salile Shahabi Rabori, Sareh Ghasemirad, Nasim Zamani and Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:23
  30. Despite the fact that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been tested to treat various cardiovascular diseases, the effects of selective HDAC6 inhibitor ACY1215 on infarct size during cardiac ischemia-r...

    Authors: Chao-Feng Lin, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Wei-Chun HuangFu, Tony Eight Lin, Han-Li Huang and Shiow-Lin Pan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:21
  31. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effects of levofloxacin and ceftazidime as both monotherapy and combination therapy, and to determine their effects on resistance suppression in pa...

    Authors: L Zhao, X Li, X He and L Jian
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:20
  32. After several decades, cisplatin continues to be an essential drug for the treatment of several tumors, however, its potential nephrotoxicity is still a clinically relevant issue. Identification of predisposin...

    Authors: Elena Galfetti, Alessandra Cerutti, Michele Ghielmini, Emanuele Zucca and Luciano Wannesson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:19
  33. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite that interferes with DNA synthesis and has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug in various types of cancers. However, the development of drug resistance greatl...

    Authors: Angelika Długosz-Pokorska, Marlena Pięta, Jacek Kędzia, Tomasz Janecki and Anna Janecka
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:18
  34. Hen eggs contaminated with lead can be harmful to the health of children and adults. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if sub-chronic treatment with ascorbic acid can reduce lead levels in t...

    Authors: Ramzi Shawahna, Ahed Zyoud, Elaf Haj Yahia, Rahma Sulieman, Abeer Haddad, Mohammad Makhlof, Bilal Abu-Hilal, Ghulam Murtaza and Hikmat Hilal
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:17
  35. Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive, analgesic and anxiolytic medication. The typical side effects include dizziness, somnolence and weight gain. Few studies or case reports have demonstrated psychiatric side effe...

    Authors: Georgios Mousailidis, Basavaraja Papanna, Andrew Salmon, Aung Sein and Qutaiba Al-Hillawi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:16
  36. In developing countries, brand-generic substitution is not based on validated scientific evidence that confirm the therapeutic equivalence of the generic to the originator. Rather, decisions are made based on ...

    Authors: Eva Hobeika, Joanna Farhat, Joseph Saab, Walid Hleihel, Samar Azzi-Achkouty, Georges Sili, Souheil Hallit and Pascale Salameh
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:15
  37. Rosuvastatin (RSV) is a poorly water-soluble drug that has an absolute oral bioavailability of only 20%. The aim of this work was to prepare a positively charged chitosan coated flexible lipid-based vesicles (...

    Authors: Tarek A. Ahmed
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:14
  38. Although recent studies using experimental models of ischemic brain injury indicate that systemically-administered β1-blockers have potential protective effects on the cerebrovascular system, the precise mechanis...

    Authors: Nobumasa Asano, Sohei Hishiyama, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Masakazu Kotoda and Takashi Matsukawa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:13
  39. Whether Borna disease virus (BDV-1) is a human pathogen remained controversial until recent encephalitis cases showed BDV-1 infection could even be deadly. This called to mind previous evidence for an infectio...

    Authors: Detlef E. Dietrich, Liv Bode, Carsten W. Spannhuth, Hartmut Hecker, Hanns Ludwig and Hinderk M. Emrich
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:12
  40. Quercetin, a pigment (flavonoid) found in many plants and foods, has good effects on protecting liver function but poor solubility and bioavailability in vivo. A drug delivery system can improve the accumulati...

    Authors: Xiangyan Liu, Yang Zhang, Ling Liu, Yifeng Pan, Yu Hu, Pu Yang and Mingmei Liao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:11
  41. Hyperuricemia is an abnormal increase in uric acid levels in the blood. It is the cause of gout that manifested by inflammatory arthritis and painful disable. Therefore, current study evaluated the potential a...

    Authors: Youssef Saeed Alghamdi, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman and Mohamed Abdo Nassan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:10
  42. Cyclosporine-A has been regarded as an immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of various immune inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of Cyclosporine-A on the retina of type 2 diabe...

    Authors: Peng Wang, Fei Chen and Xuedong Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:9
  43. Obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that comprises several pathological events, such as adipose hypertrophy, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Inflammation is a key contributer to development of thes...

    Authors: Mohammad Alsaggar, Shifa Bdour, Qutaibah Ababneh, Tamam El-Elimat, Nidal Qinna and Karem H. Alzoubi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:8
  44. 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbence-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is a polyhydroxyphenolic compound, which exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-depression, anti-oxidat...

    Authors: Cheng Wang, Yimeng Zhou, Xiaohong Gong, Li Zheng and Yunxia Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:7
  45. Leakage following colorectal anastomosis surgery causes various complications associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in pediatric patients. It might be caused by the use of non-steroidal anti...

    Authors: Eko Purnomo, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih, Nunik Agustriani and Gunadi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:6
  46. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit SGLT2, which is expressed in the proximal renal tubule, and thus reduce blood glucose levels by enabling the urinary excretion of excess glucose. SGLT2...

    Authors: Miho Nakamura, Junya Nakade, Tadashi Toyama, Masaki Okajima and Takumi Taniguchi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:5
  47. Cola nitida is commonly chewed in many West African cultures to ease hunger pangs and sometimes for their stimulant and euphoriant qualities. Metoclopramide is a known substrate for P-gp, SULT2A1 and CYP2D6 and s...

    Authors: Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi and Wisdom Izuchukwu Nwachukwu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:4
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