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  1. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype with a poor prognosis. In the phase III PACIFIC study, durvalumab significantly improved progression-free survival and overa...

    Authors: Kazumi Nishino, Kei Kunimasa, Madoka Kimura, Takako Inoue, Motohiro Tamiya, Hanako Kuhara and Toru Kumagai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:26

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Older adults are more prone to develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) since they exhibit numerous risk factors. The first aim was to analyse the number of spontaneous ADR reports regarding older adults (> 65) i...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Katja S. Just, Matthias Schmid, Julia C. Stingl and Bernhardt Sachs

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The study aimed to evaluate and compare the leukocyte chemotactic activities of various brimonidine tartrate (BT) eye drop formulations.

    Authors: Ruiz Simonato Alonso, Helena Parente Solari, Eduardo de França Damasceno, Miguel Noel Nascentes Burnier Jr. and Marcelo Palis Ventura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In 2016, in a lead poisoning outbreak in Iran, physicians reported thousands of opium users who presented to emergency departments (EDs) with intractable severe abdominal pain which did not respond to any narc...

    Authors: Masoud Mayel, Saleh Hamzeh, Salile Shahabi Rabori, Sareh Ghasemirad, Nasim Zamani and Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Despite the fact that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been tested to treat various cardiovascular diseases, the effects of selective HDAC6 inhibitor ACY1215 on infarct size during cardiac ischemia-r...

    Authors: Chao-Feng Lin, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Wei-Chun HuangFu, Tony Eight Lin, Han-Li Huang and Shiow-Lin Pan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effects of levofloxacin and ceftazidime as both monotherapy and combination therapy, and to determine their effects on resistance suppression in pa...

    Authors: L Zhao, X Li, X He and L Jian

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  7. After several decades, cisplatin continues to be an essential drug for the treatment of several tumors, however, its potential nephrotoxicity is still a clinically relevant issue. Identification of predisposin...

    Authors: Elena Galfetti, Alessandra Cerutti, Michele Ghielmini, Emanuele Zucca and Luciano Wannesson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  8. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite that interferes with DNA synthesis and has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug in various types of cancers. However, the development of drug resistance greatl...

    Authors: Angelika Długosz-Pokorska, Marlena Pięta, Jacek Kędzia, Tomasz Janecki and Anna Janecka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Hen eggs contaminated with lead can be harmful to the health of children and adults. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if sub-chronic treatment with ascorbic acid can reduce lead levels in t...

    Authors: Ramzi Shawahna, Ahed Zyoud, Elaf Haj Yahia, Rahma Sulieman, Abeer Haddad, Mohammad Makhlof, Bilal Abu-Hilal, Ghulam Murtaza and Hikmat Hilal

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:17

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive, analgesic and anxiolytic medication. The typical side effects include dizziness, somnolence and weight gain. Few studies or case reports have demonstrated psychiatric side effe...

    Authors: Georgios Mousailidis, Basavaraja Papanna, Andrew Salmon, Aung Sein and Qutaiba Al-Hillawi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:16

    Content type: Case report

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  11. In developing countries, brand-generic substitution is not based on validated scientific evidence that confirm the therapeutic equivalence of the generic to the originator. Rather, decisions are made based on ...

    Authors: Eva Hobeika, Joanna Farhat, Joseph Saab, Walid Hleihel, Samar Azzi-Achkouty, Georges Sili, Souheil Hallit and Pascale Salameh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:15

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Rosuvastatin (RSV) is a poorly water-soluble drug that has an absolute oral bioavailability of only 20%. The aim of this work was to prepare a positively charged chitosan coated flexible lipid-based vesicles (...

    Authors: Tarek A. Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Although recent studies using experimental models of ischemic brain injury indicate that systemically-administered β1-blockers have potential protective effects on the cerebrovascular system, the precise mechanis...

    Authors: Nobumasa Asano, Sohei Hishiyama, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Masakazu Kotoda and Takashi Matsukawa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:13

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Whether Borna disease virus (BDV-1) is a human pathogen remained controversial until recent encephalitis cases showed BDV-1 infection could even be deadly. This called to mind previous evidence for an infectio...

    Authors: Detlef E. Dietrich, Liv Bode, Carsten W. Spannhuth, Hartmut Hecker, Hanns Ludwig and Hinderk M. Emrich

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Quercetin, a pigment (flavonoid) found in many plants and foods, has good effects on protecting liver function but poor solubility and bioavailability in vivo. A drug delivery system can improve the accumulati...

    Authors: Xiangyan Liu, Yang Zhang, Ling Liu, Yifeng Pan, Yu Hu, Pu Yang and Mingmei Liao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:11

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hyperuricemia is an abnormal increase in uric acid levels in the blood. It is the cause of gout that manifested by inflammatory arthritis and painful disable. Therefore, current study evaluated the potential a...

    Authors: Youssef Saeed Alghamdi, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman and Mohamed Abdo Nassan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Cyclosporine-A has been regarded as an immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of various immune inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of Cyclosporine-A on the retina of type 2 diabe...

    Authors: Peng Wang, Fei Chen and Xuedong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that comprises several pathological events, such as adipose hypertrophy, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Inflammation is a key contributer to development of thes...

    Authors: Mohammad Alsaggar, Shifa Bdour, Qutaibah Ababneh, Tamam El-Elimat, Nidal Qinna and Karem H. Alzoubi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:8

    Content type: Research article

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  19. 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbence-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is a polyhydroxyphenolic compound, which exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-depression, anti-oxidat...

    Authors: Cheng Wang, Yimeng Zhou, Xiaohong Gong, Li Zheng and Yunxia Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Leakage following colorectal anastomosis surgery causes various complications associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in pediatric patients. It might be caused by the use of non-steroidal anti...

    Authors: Eko Purnomo, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih, Nunik Agustriani and Gunadi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:6

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit SGLT2, which is expressed in the proximal renal tubule, and thus reduce blood glucose levels by enabling the urinary excretion of excess glucose. SGLT2...

    Authors: Miho Nakamura, Junya Nakade, Tadashi Toyama, Masaki Okajima and Takumi Taniguchi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:5

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Cola nitida is commonly chewed in many West African cultures to ease hunger pangs and sometimes for their stimulant and euphoriant qualities. Metoclopramide is a known substrate for P-gp, SULT2A1 and CYP2D6 and s...

    Authors: Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi and Wisdom Izuchukwu Nwachukwu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:4

    Content type: Research article

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  23. 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective dicarbonyl electrophile scavenger being developed as a nutritional supplement to help protect against the development of conditions associated with dicarbonyl elect...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, Patricia M. Driver, John C. Fuller Jr, Wendell S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Ginger L. Milne, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Fei Ye, L. Jackson Roberts II, M. Benjamin Shoemaker, John A. Oates, John A. Rathmacher and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Liver ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage which is frequently seen in clinical hepatobiliary surgeries has no effective treatment for it. Liv-52, known to have hepatoprotective effects, is a natural antioxidant ...

    Authors: Orhan Cimen, Hüseyin Eken, Ferda Keskin Cimen, Arif Burak Cekic, Nezahat Kurt, Asli Ozbek Bilgin, Bahadir Suleyman, Halis Suleyman, Renad Mammadov, Kamil Pehlivanoglu and Eray Kurnaz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:2

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug, it catalyzed into its active form by Cytochrome 450 and Paraoxonase-1(PON-1). polymorphisms of genes encoding these enzymes will affect the efficacy of Clopidogrel. The main...

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhang, Mingxiao Chen, Long Zhang and Qiang Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:1

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. FKB327 is a biosimilar of the adalimumab reference product (RP). The primary objective was to assess the relative bioavailability of FKB327 after a single subcutaneous (SC) dose via prefilled syringe (PFS), au...

    Authors: Jim Bush, Kazuki Kawakami and Rafael Muniz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:87

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. T lymphocytes play an important role in contact hypersensitivity. This study aims to explore the immunosuppressive activity of SBF-1, an analog of saponin OSW-1, against T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Authors: Wei Chen, Xianying Fang, Yuan Gao, Ke Shi, Lijun Sun, Biao Yu, Qiong Luo and Qiang Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic and analgesic agent, is known to improve the analgesic efficacy of opioids and to attenuate central sensitisation and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Clinical use is, however, ...

    Authors: Martyn Harvey, Jamie Sleigh, Logan Voss, Mike Bickerdike, Ivaylo Dimitrov and William Denny

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:85

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Exposure to vinylcyclohexene (VCH) and methylmercury (MeHg+) can induce oxidative stress and gene modulation. Several studies have been evaluating the effects of VCH and MeHg+, but little is known about interacti...

    Authors: Bruna Candia Piccoli, Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Cláudia Sirlene Oliveira, Fernanda D’Avila da Silva, Michael Aschner and João Batista Teixeira da Rocha

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):83

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  30. The presence of impurities in some drugs may compromise the safety and efficacy of the patient’s treatment. Therefore, establishing of the biological safety of the impurities is essential. Diabetic patients ar...

    Authors: Camila F. A. Giordani, Sarah Campanharo, Nathalie R. Wingert, Lívia M. Bueno, Joanna W. Manoel, Barbara Costa, Shanda Cattani, Marcelo Dutra Arbo, Solange Cristina Garcia, Cássia Virginia Garcia, Nádia Maria Volpato, Elfrides Eva Scherman Schapoval and Martin Steppe

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):82

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  31. Tamoxifen is considered a prodrug of its active metabolite endoxifen, which is dependent on the CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes. Tamoxifen pharmacokinetic variability influences endoxifen exposure and, consequently, ...

    Authors: João Paulo Bianchi Ximenez, Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade, Maria Paula Marques, Eduardo Barbosa Coelho, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz and Vera Lucia Lanchote

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):81

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  32. Melatonin has been described in the literature as a potent antioxidant. However, melatonin presents variable, low bioavailability and a short half-life. The use of polymeric nanoparticulated systems has been p...

    Authors: Mariele F. Charão, Gabriela Goethel, Natália Brucker, Karina Paese, Vera L. Eifler-Lima, Adriana R. Pohlmann, Silvia S. Guterres and Solange C. Garcia

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):80

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  33. The γ-hexalactone is a flavoring agent for alcoholic beverages, teas, breads, dairy products, coffees, buttery products among others. It presents low molecular weight and exhibits sweet fruity aroma with nuanc...

    Authors: Luísa Zuravski, Taiane A. Escobar, Elizandra G. Schmitt, Queila D. F. Amaral, Fávero R. Paula, Thiago Duarte, Marta M. M. F. Duarte, Michel M. Machado, Luís F. S. Oliveira and Vanusa Manfredini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):79

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  34. Nickel and nickel-containing compounds (NCC) are known human carcinogens. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced malignant transformation remain unknown. Proposed mechanisms suggest that n...

    Authors: Luisa Jiménez-Vidal, Pedro Espitia-Pérez, José Torres-Ávila, Dina Ricardo-Caldera, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Claudia Galeano-Páez, Karina Pastor-Sierra and Lyda Espitia-Pérez

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):78

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  35. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main exogenous inductor of skin damage and so photoprotection is important to control skin disorders. The Antarctic moss Sanionia uncinata is an important source of antioxidants ...

    Authors: Andréia da Silva Fernandes, Lara Barroso Brito, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues Oliveira, Elisa Raquel Anastácio Ferraz, Heitor Evangelista, José Luiz Mazzei and Israel Felzenszwalb

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):77

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  36. Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease. Although the number of people infected is very high, the only drugs available to treat CD, nifurtimox (Nfx) and benznidazole, are highly toxic, particularly...

    Authors: Fabiana Gomes Nascimento Soares, Gabriela Göethel, Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Elisa Sauer, Estefania Birriel, Javier Varela, Itamar Luís Gonçalves, Gilsane Von Poser, Mercedes González, Daniel Fábio Kawano, Fávero Reisdorfer Paula, Eduardo Borges de Melo, Solange Cristina Garcia, Hugo Cerecetto and Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):76

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  37. Gasoline is a complex mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, in which aromatic compounds, such as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) feature as the main constituents. Simultaneous exposure to these...

    Authors: Angela Maria Moro, Elisa Sauer, Natália Brucker, Mariele Feiffer Charão, Bruna Gauer, Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento, Gabriela Goethel, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte and Solange Cristina Garcia

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  38. For many decades, the sting of Samsun ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis) has been a serious clinical challenge for the people living in some of the major Middle East and Asian countries. In the present study, the th...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Alhazza, Hossam Ebaid, Bahaa Abdel-Salam, Jameel H. Al-Tamimi, Iftekhar Hassan, Ahmed M. Rady and Ashraf M. A. Mashaly

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:84

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Anti-neoplastic agents are widely used in the treatment of cancer and some non-neoplastic diseases. These drugs have been proved to be carcinogens, teratogens, and mutagens. Concern exists regarding the possib...

    Authors: Maral Ramazani, Razieh Pourahmad Jaktaji, Farshad H. Shirazi, Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Ahmad Salimi and Jalal Pourahmad

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Timolol Maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker that is commonly used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Despite its topical administration, ophthalmic timolol enters systemic circulation and produces a ...

    Authors: Zhuoying Wang, Ian Denys, Feng Chen, Lijie Cai, Xuecui Wang, Daniel R. Kapusta, Yongliang Lv and Juan Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:73

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. As a new generation antihistamine, fexofenadine has been widely used in allergic diseases. However, there is still a lack of collective evidence regarding the antihistamine effects and safety profiles of fexof...

    Authors: Cheng-zhi Huang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Jian Wang, Yue Luo and Hua Peng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Dexmedetomidine was proved to mitigate bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity but mechanism of this ability is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiot...

    Authors: Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin, Tingting Lin, Xixi Cai, Linmin Pan, Shi Wang, Yaoyao Cai and Hongfei Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:70

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Ability to manage urges to smoke is fundamental to maximizing the chances of success in smoking cessation. Previous studies have linked a higher dose of nicotine in nicotine replacement therapy to a higher suc...

    Authors: Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Roland Perfekt, Elin Hall and Holger Kraiczi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Eribulin improves survival in pre-treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). However, limited data exist on co-morbidities and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy. The purpose of this study was to r...

    Authors: Milana Bergamino Sirvén, Adela Fernández-Ortega, Agostina Stradella, Idoia Morilla, Catalina Falo, Silvia Vázquez, Roser Castany, Rafael Villanueva, Sabela Recalde, Valentí Navarro Pérez, Miguel Gil-Gil and Sonia Pernas

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:68

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, although involving two different tumour suppressor genes (neurofibromin and merlin, respectively), are both cancer predisposition syndromes that disproportionately affect cells of ne...

    Authors: Yu-chi Shen, Caroline Arellano-Garcia, Rosa E. Menjivar, Ethan M. Jewett, Wolfgang Dohle, Sofiia Karchugina, Jonathan Chernoff, Barry V. L. Potter and Kate F. Barald

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:67

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Colchicine is a clinical medicine used for relief from gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Because of its toxic effects, intravenous injection of colchicine has been banned, but it is still widely administe...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Yingjun Xie, Minyi Yan, Qianying Pan, Yi Liang and Xiaofang Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, lead...

    Authors: Milo Gatti, Emanuel Raschi and Fabrizio De Ponti

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:65

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

Reviewer acknowledgments