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  1. Acute lung injury (ALI) together with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with high rate of mortality and morbidity in patients. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of con...

    Authors: Hassan Ali, Ashrafullah Khan, Jawad Ali, Hadayat Ullah, Adnan Khan, Hussain Ali, Nadeem Irshad and Salman Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:81

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Levamlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, has been show act as a cardiovascular drug. To compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between levamlodipine (test formulation) at a single dose of 5 mg and amlodipine ...

    Authors: Xin Li, Chenjing Wang, Ting Li, Yanping Liu, Shuqin Liu, Ye Tao, Yaping Ma, Xiaomeng Gao and Yu Cao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:80

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Although two novel synthesized compounds with tri-aryl structures; 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazole (A) and 3,5-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol...

    Authors: Tayebeh Afsharirad, Raheleh Tahmasvand, Mohsen Amini, Bahram Daraei and Mona Salimi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Plants provide a ray of hope to combat the ever increasing antibiotic resistance and Symplocos racemosa is a valuable medicinal plant. The study focused on highlighting the importance of this plant’s phytoconstit...

    Authors: Henna Sood, Yashwant Kumar, Vipan Kumar Gupta and Daljit Singh Arora

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Imatinib is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent by other isoenzymes, with N-desmethyl imatinib being its major equipotent metabolite. Being a CYP3A4 substrate, imatinib co-administration with CYP3...

    Authors: Ruba S. Darweesh, Tamam El-Elimat, Aref Zayed, Tareq N. Khamis, Wahby M. Babaresh, Tawfiq Arafat and Ahmed H. Al Sharie

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Currently, there are no effective medications to reverse periodontal disease (PD)-induced bone loss. The objective of this study was to test a new anabolic compound, LLP2A-Ale, or with the combination treatmen...

    Authors: Min Jiang, Lixian Liu, Ruiwu Liu, Kit S. Lam, Nancy E. Lane and Wei Yao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Whilst cannabis commercialization is occurring rapidly guided by highly individualistic public narratives, evidence that all congenital anomalies (CA) increase alongside cannabis use in Canada, a link with 21 ...

    Authors: Albert Stuart Reece and Gary Kenneth Hulse

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Cigarette smoking is a critical risk factor for the destruction of lung parenchyma or the development of emphysema, which is characteristic of COPD. Disruption of epithelial layer integrity may contribute to l...

    Authors: Cheng-hsiung Chen, Yi-Rong Li, Sheng-Hao Lin, Hsiu-Hui Chang, Woei-Horng Chai, Po-Chiang Chan and Ching-Hsiung Lin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Of patients receiving moderate emetic risk chemotherapy (MEC), 30–90% experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV); however, the optimal antiemetic treatment remains controversial.

    Authors: Reiko Matsui, Kenichi Suzuki, Tomomi Takiguchi, Makoto Nishio, Takeshi Koike, Toshinobu Hayashi, Takashi Seto, Yuki Kogure, Naoyuki Nogami, Kimiko Fujiwara, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Tomohiko Harada, Satoru Shimizu, Masashi Kimura, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Mototsugu Shimokawa…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Cantharidin (CTD) is a compound which have the potential to be exploited as an antitumor drug, and it has been demonstrated antitumor effects in a variety of cancers. However, the use is limited due to its sev...

    Authors: Haozhen Shao, Lei Dong, Yanyan Feng, Chunhui Wang and Hongxuan Tong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Combined inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes may be an efficient treatment for acute leukemia. The primary objective of this phase I single...

    Authors: Fabian Lang, Lydia Wunderle, Susanne Badura, Eberhard Schleyer, Monika Brüggemann, Hubert Serve, Susanne Schnittger, Nicola Gökbuget, Heike Pfeifer, Sebastian Wagner, Kevin Ashelford, Gesine Bug and Oliver G. Ottmann

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Cisplatin is an important drug in the treatment of various Cancers. However, this drug causes nephrotoxicity that is linked to electrolyte derangement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of elect...

    Authors: Omary M. S. Minzi, Tatu E. Lyimo, Francis F. Furia, Alphonce I. Marealle, Manase Kilonzi, George M. Bwire and Christina Malichewe

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  13. To describe and analyze the patterns of adverse events associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, vildagliptin, and alogliptin) from the FDA Adverse Eve...

    Authors: Jing Huang, Yuntao Jia, Shusen Sun and Long Meng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:68

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors by inhibiting tumor immune escape. A ...

    Authors: Huihan Ma, Qian Qin, Jiaqing Mi and Qinmei Feng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Gene expression profile analysis on mammalian cell lines and animal models after exposure to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been investigated in several studies in recent years. Microarray analysis provides a...

    Authors: Lei Wang, Carol S. Ringelberg and Bal R. Singh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cisplatin (CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug for Gastric cancer (GC) that induces apoptosis by altering pro- (p53) and anti-apoptotic (Akt and NFkB) proteins; however, chemoresistance remains a big challen...

    Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Ikram A. Burney, Buthaina Al-Dhahli, Safiya Al-Kharusi, Fakhra Al-Kharousi, Amani Al-Kalbani and Ikhlas Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:64

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Drug-drug interaction is an emerging threat to public health. Currently, there is an increase in comorbid disease, polypharmacy, and hospitalization in Ethiopia. Thus, the possibility of drug-drug interaction ...

    Authors: Wondim Ayenew, Getahun Asmamaw and Arebu Issa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Acrylamide (ACR) formed during heating of tobacco and carbohydrate-rich food as well as widely applied in industries has been known as a well-established neurotoxic pollutant. Although the precise mechanism is...

    Authors: Jie Guo, Xiaolu Cao, Xianmin Hu, Shulan Li and Jun Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The existence of a cross-talk between peritumoral adipocytes and cancer cells has been increasingly investigated. Several studies have shown that these adipocytes protect tumor cells from the effect of antican...

    Authors: A. Geneste, M. N. Duong, L. Molina, L. Conilh, S. Beaumel, A. Cleret, K. Chettab, M. Lachat, L. P. Jordheim, E. L. Matera and C. Dumontet

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an essential immunosuppressant in organ transplantation. However, its chronic nephrotoxicity is an obstacle to long allograft survival that has not been overcome. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-...

    Authors: Shinya Morita, Kazunobu Shinoda, Tadashi Yoshida, Masayuki Shimoda, Yoshihiko Kanno, Ryuichi Mizuno, Hidaka Kono, Hiroshi Asanuma, Ken Nakagawa, Kazuo Umezawa and Mototsugu Oya

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Non-alcoholic fatty liver is one of the most common comorbidities of diabetes. It can cause disturbance of glucose and lipid metabolism in the body, gradually develop into liver fibrosis, and even cause liver ...

    Authors: He Lin, Houlei Teng, Wei Wu, Yong Li, Guangfu Lv, Xiaowei Huang, Wenhao Yan and Zhe Lin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Adolescents experience higher levels of non-adherence to HIV treatment. Drug concentration in hair promises to be reliable for assessing exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Pharmacokinetic modelling can ex...

    Authors: Bernard Ngara, Simbarashe Zvada, Tariro Dianah Chawana, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Charles Fungai Brian Nhachi and Simbarashe Rusakaniko

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  23. This study aimed to assess the pediatric lisinopril doses using an adult physiological based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. As the empirical rules of dose calculation cannot calculate gender-specific pediatric ...

    Authors: Memoona Rashid, Muhammad Sarfraz, Mosab Arafat, Amjad Hussain, Nasir Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Sadiq, Muhammad Fawad Rasool and Nadeem Irfan Bukhari

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  24. To investigate the effects of coadministration of esaxerenone with amlodipine on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of each drug, and of esaxerenone on the PK of digoxin.

    Authors: Yoshiaki Kirigaya, Masanari Shiramoto, Tomoko Ishizuka, Hinako Uchimaru, Shin Irie, Manabu Kato, Takako Shimizu, Takafumi Nakatsu, Yasuhiro Nishikawa and Hitoshi Ishizuka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be affected by food intake. We aimed to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, rabeprazole, and pantoprazole.

    Authors: Dolores Ochoa, Manuel Román, Teresa Cabaleiro, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Gina Mejía and Francisco Abad-Santos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Methadone is well known for its long duration of action and propensity for mortality after an overdose. The present research was aimed at evaluating the clinical manifestations and time trends of methadone exp...

    Authors: Omid Mehrpour, Christopher Hoyte, Alireza Amirabadizadeh and Jeffrey Brent

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) causes the vast proportion of excess mortality for patients with diabetes. Novel therapeutic approaches slowing down its incidence is still lacking. Psoralen is the major active ingre...

    Authors: Yongtao Lin, Lili Zhong, Hailun Li, Yong Xu, Xiang Li and Donghui Zheng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  28. To assess adherence to and preference for vitamin D substitution with different pharmaceutical forms and frequencies of administration.

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Rothen, Jonas Rutishauser, Philipp N. Walter, Kurt E. Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  29. A trough concentration (Cmin) ≥20 μg/mL of teicoplanin is recommended for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, sufficient clinical evidence to support t...

    Authors: Takashi Ueda, Yoshio Takesue, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Kaoru Ichiki, Kaori Ishikawa, Yoshiko Takai, Kumiko Yamada, Toshie Tsuchida, Naruhito Otani, Yoshiko Takahashi, Mika Ishihara, Shingo Takubo, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino and Takeshi Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The success rate of rescue is extremely low in acute paraquat poisoning. This study aimed to assess whether strengthened hemoperfusion (SHP) combined with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) improves p...

    Authors: An-bao Chen, Fang Li, E-mu Di, Xiao Zhang, Qun-yuan Zhao and Jing Wen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Prescription of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) to childhood/adolescent has exponentially increased in recent years, which was associated with the greater risk of significant weight gain and dysli...

    Authors: Xuemei Liu, Xiyu Feng, Chao Deng, Lu Liu, Yanping Zeng and Chang-Hua Hu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In acute intoxication, carbamazepine concentration above 40 mcg/ml is associated with a risk of severe neurological consequences, including depressed consciousness, respiratory depression, cardiac conduction d...

    Authors: Ayala Hirsch, Maor Wanounou, Amichai Perlman, Bruria Hirsh-Raccah and Mordechai Muszkat

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Paracetamol/Orphenadrine is a fixed dose combination containing 35 mg orphenadrine and 450 mg paracetamol. It has analgesic and muscle relaxant properties and is widely available as generics. This study is con...

    Authors: Kit Yee Cheah, Kar Yee Mah, Lai Hui Pang, Shi Min Ng, Jia Woei Wong, Siew Siew Tan, Hong Zhe Tan and Kah Hay Yuen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs’ biliary effects were limit...

    Authors: Boyu Li, Yanjin Hu, Guang Wang and Lihong Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Progressive bone pain and fracture and abnormal positron emission tomography combined with a computed tomography are main reasons for the oncologists suspecting bone tumor. During the patient’s medical treatme...

    Authors: Qian Xiang, Zhiyan Liu, Yanyan Yu, Hanxu Zhang, Qiufen Xie, Guangyan Mu, Jianhua Zhang, Xinan Cen and Yimin Cui

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:43

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Population-based studies suggest increasing rates of concurrent use of vaping products that contain either nicotine or cannabinoids. The aim of this pilot study was to test in vitro the acute inhalation toxici...

    Authors: Noel J. Leigh and Maciej L. Goniewicz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2–3% of the population worldwide. Hyperproliferative keratinocytes were thought to be an amplifier of inflammatory response, thereby sustaining persis...

    Authors: Jintao Gao, Junfan Guo, Yuejuan Nong, Wenfei Mo, Huanan Fang, Jing Mi, Qi Qi and Mengjuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Fluoroquinolones are used for conditions including sinusitis, bronchitis, and urinary tract infections. It has been suggested that exposure to fluoroquinolones for these conditions is associated with disabilit...

    Authors: Marsha A. Wilcox, Angelina Villasis-Keever, Anthony G. Sena, Christopher Knoll and Daniel Fife

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation in the liver, due to a chronic injury, and subsequent alteration of the normal architecture of the liver. Even though there is a huge effort to...

    Authors: Abraham Nigussie Mekuria, Michael N. Routledge, Yun Yun Gong and Mekonnen Sisay

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Rivaroxaban, a novel oral anticoagulant drug, is widely used in clinical practice. There is no standardized laboratory monitoring for rivaroxaban, and its plasma concentration in Chinese patients with deep vei...

    Authors: Ying Li, Liping Du, Xiaowan Tang, Yuexin Chen and Dan Mei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Despite its cardiotoxicity doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of paediatric malignancies. Current treatment regimens appear to be suboptimal as treatment strategies vary and do not follow a clear pha...

    Authors: Christian Siebel, Gudrun Würthwein, Claudia Lanvers-Kaminsky, Nicolas André, Frank Berthold, Ilaria Castelli, Pascal Chastagner, François Doz, Martin English, Gabriele Escherich, Michael C. Frühwald, Norbert Graf, Andreas H. Groll, Antonio Ruggiero, Georg Hempel and Joachim Boos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  42. There are no reports on investigations of the characteristics of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for pediatric patients in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) and the utility of databas...

    Authors: Aoi Noda, Takamasa Sakai, Taku Obara, Makoto Miyazaki, Masami Tsuchiya, Gen Oyanagi, Yuriko Murai and Nariyasu Mano

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Air pollution increases the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis (AS) is the pathological basis of most CVD, and the progression of atherosclerosis and the increase of fragi...

    Authors: Siqi Wang, Feifei Wang, Lixin Yang, Qin Li, Yao Huang, Zhiyuan Cheng, Hongqian Chu, Yiming Song, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao and Xuetao Wei

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  44. It is prudent that novel classes of antibiotics be urgently developed to manage the WHO prioritized multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens posing an unprecedented medical crisis. Simultaneously, multiple essenti...

    Authors: Suprim Tha, Sapana Shakya, Rajani Malla and Pramod Aryal

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:33

    Content type: Research article

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Reviewer acknowledgments

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