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  1. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the one-year visual and anatomical outcomes of combination therapy with intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

    Authors: Hsin-Yu Weng, Tzu-Lun Huang, Pei-Yao Chang and Jia-Kang Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:29

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Concern about intoxication by e-liquid is growing as calls to poison control centers have increased since their introduction. Only three cases of intoxication by injection have been reported worldwide. Our cas...

    Authors: Mhedi Belkoniene, Jennifer Socquet, Denise Njemba-Freiburghaus and Cyril Pellaton

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:28

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Thromboprophylaxis dosing strategies using enoxaparin in elderly patients with renal disease are limited, while dose adjustments or monitoring of anti-Xa levels are recommended. We sought to evaluate the effic...

    Authors: Nibal Chamoun, Hady Ghanem, Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Christelle Lteif, Hanine Mansour, Hani Dimassi, Richard Zalloum and Georges Ghanem

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:27

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Daptomycin is an important drug used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. A high dose of daptomycin is indicated for an MRSA infection with a minimum inhibitory concen...

    Authors: Yi-Chien Lee, Pao-Yu Chen, Jann-Tay Wang and Shan-Chwen Chang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:25

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Monitoring the safety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in resource-constrained countries such as Eritrea due to their serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was aimed at assessing...

    Authors: Lidya Hagos, Siyoma Fessehaye and Indermeet Singh Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:24

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The activation of neurohumoral compensatory mechanisms is a common physiological phenomenon in heart failure in order to make up for a failing heart, which will usually have a deteriorating effect on overall h...

    Authors: Kawa Dizaye and Rojgar H. Ali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:23

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, with an increasing incidence. Despite the fact that systematic chemotherapy with a doxorubicin provides only marginal improvements in surv...

    Authors: Agnieszka Korga, Marta Ostrowska, Aleksandra Jozefczyk, Magdalena Iwan, Rafal Wojcik, Grazyna Zgorka, Mariola Herbet, Gemma Gomez Vilarrubla and Jaroslaw Dudka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:22

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant cause of emergency department (ED) visits, with a major impact on healthcare resource utilization. A multicentre observational study, aimed to describe frequency, s...

    Authors: Ivan Lo Giudice, Eleonora Mocciaro, Claudia Giardina, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Giuseppe Cicala, Maria Gioffrè-Florio, Giuseppe Carpinteri, Aulo Di Grande, Edoardo Spina, Vincenzo Arcoraci and Paola Maria Cutroneo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:21

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Parasitic diseases are the main challenge of livestock production in the world. They are mainly controlled by the use of anthelmintic drugs. To be effective, the drugs should contain the appropriate amount of ...

    Authors: Assegid Seifu, Elias Kebede, Belachew Bacha, Achenef Melaku and Tadese Setegn

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:20

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Tigecycline, with broad in vitro antibacterial activity, has been widely used off-label for nosocomial pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). However, many concerns have been ra...

    Authors: Yangang Zhou, Xumin Chen, Ping Xu, Yan Zhu, Kuangguo Wang, Daxiong Xiang, Feng Wang and Hoan Linh Banh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:19

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The effects of β blockers on the primary prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity were controversial.

    Authors: Yingxu Ma, Fan Bai, Fen Qin, Jiayi Li, Na Liu, Dongping Li, Tengfang Li, Hui Xie, Da Liu, Shenghua Zhou and Qiming Liu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:18

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a common emergency worldwide, which carries high morbidity and mortality. Some patients who recover from the insult of acute carbon monoxide toxicity may later develop delayed neur...

    Authors: Prabhashini Kumarihamy, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kularatne, Manoji Pathirage, Wasala Mudiyanselage Sujeewa Nilanthi Gunaratne and Roshita Waduge

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:17

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The development of heart failure is accompanied by complex changes in cardiac electrophysiology and functional properties of cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors hold great pro...

    Authors: Johanna K. Freundt, Gerrit Frommeyer, Tilmann Spieker, Fabian Wötzel, Jochen Schulze Grotthoff, Jörg Stypmann, Georg Hempel, Michael Schäfers, Andreas H. Jacobs, Lars Eckardt and Philipp S. Lange

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:16

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are newer oral anti-diabetic agents which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In...

    Authors: Dan Liu, Biao Jin, Wei Chen and Peng Yun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:15

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  15. Content type: Correction


    Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:14

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    The original article was published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

  16. Content type: Research article

    Basic function of bromine in body is to activate pepsin production in gastritis with low acidity. The present study encompasses a broad in vivo study to evaluate gastroprotective activity of a novel dibromo su...

    Authors: Kamelia Saremi, Sima Kianpour Rad, Faezeh Tayeby, Mahmood A. Abdulla, Hamed Karimian and Nazia Abdul Majid

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:13

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is a public health problem in many regions of Colombia. This study aimed to estimate the burden of PQ poisoning in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Authors: Jefferson Antonio Buendía, Gabriel Jaime Restrepo Chavarriaga and Andrés F. Zuluaga

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:11

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  18. Content type: Research article

    There is evidence that atypical antipsychotics (APs) increase risk of osteoporosis in schizophrenia patients, however the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the molecular mechanisms abou...

    Authors: Peifan Li, Yiming Wang, Xingde Liu, Zhen Zhou, Jun Wang, Haiyan Zhou, Lei Zheng and Lixia Yang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:10

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  19. Content type: Case report

    True hypersensitivity reactions to rifampicin are relatively rare, nonetheless severe manifestations mostly involving a single organ have been documented. We report a case of acute multi-organ failure occurrin...

    Authors: Lisa Brockhaus, Yasmin Schmid, Anna C. Rast, Alexandra E. Rätz Bravo, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier and Anne B. Leuppi-Taegtmeyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:9

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Levels of toxic metal exposure in indigenous inhabitants are key bioindicators of the severity of environmental contamination. This study measured the seasonal variation of heavy metals and metallothionein (MT...

    Authors: Ai Yin Sow, Ahmad Ismail, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Mohammad Noor Amal and Kamarul Hambali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:8

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  21. Content type: Research article

    This active, open observational study aimed to investigate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with six commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in southern Chinese outpatients with epilepsy from 2003 to ...

    Authors: Yanru Du, Jiahe Lin, Jingzan Shen, Siqi Ding, Mengqian Ye, Li Wang, Yi Wang, Xinshi Wang, Niange Xia, Rongyuan Zheng, Hong Chen and Huiqin Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:7

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Nausea is more difficult to control than vomiting in chemotherapy. We therefore analyzed the efficacy of a strong supportive treatment with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone against nausea for variou...

    Authors: Naohisa Yoshida, Tetsuya Taguchi, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Ken Inoue, Tetsuya Okayama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Eigo Otsuji, Koichi Takayama, Haruo Kuroboshi, Motohiro Kanazawa and Yoshito Itoh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:6

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Fibrosis is a response to chronic liver disease that results in excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and formation of scar tissue. Fibrosis represents a clinical challenge of worldwide signi...

    Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:14

  24. Content type: Technical advance

    Methotrexate is an important component in many chemotherapy protocols. The blood concentration of Methotrexate is used to determine the regimen of folinic acid. However, the lower limit of Siemens assay kit is...

    Authors: Xiaoping Shi, Hui Gao, Zhong Li, Jinghua Li, Yang Liu, Lujuan Li and Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:3

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  25. Content type: Software

    The efficiency of drug development defined as a number of successfully launched new pharmaceuticals normalized by financial investments has significantly declined. Nonetheless, recent advances in high-throughp...

    Authors: Limeng Pu, Misagh Naderi, Tairan Liu, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Supratik Mukhopadhyay and Michal Brylinski

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:2

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  26. Content type: Research article

    2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. It is currently being developed for use as a nut...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, John A. Rathmacher, John C. Fuller Jr, J. Scott Daniels, Ryan D. Morrison, Wendall S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Patricia M. Currey, L. Jackson Roberts, John A. Oates and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:1

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is used to treat and prevent several dysrhythmias. This includes ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, wide complex tachycardia, as well as atrial fibrillation (A...

    Authors: Egle Karinauske, Silvijus Abramavicius, Greta Musteikiene, Edgaras Stankevicius, Jurgita Zaveckiene, Vidas Pilvinis and Edmundas Kadusevicius

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:88

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Fluoroquinolones are among the most frequently utilized antibacterial agents in developing countries like Ethiopia. Ciprofloxacin has become the most prescribed drug within this class and remains as one of the...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tewodros Tesfa, Zerihun Ataro, Dadi Marami, Habtamu Mitiku, Birhanu Motbaynor and Zelalem Teklemariam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:86

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Aging population, is a reality in many countries because of improvement in the health care, patient safety and other supplemental factors. Pharmacotherapy in this population must be evaluated due to their high...

    Authors: Faisal Shakeel, Muhammad Aamir, Ahmad Farooq Khan, Tayyiba Nader Khan and Samiullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:85

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease in which the body is unable to produce insulin or respond to insulin production, consequently leading to abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins causi...

    Authors: Ademola O. Ayeleso, Jitcy S. Joseph, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju and Emmanuel Mukwevho

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:84

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  31. Content type: Research article

    There is little information on the frequency of drug incompatibilities in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and the agents most commonly involved in them. The objective of the study was to characterize pote...

    Authors: Ramon Weyler Leopoldino, Haline Tereza Costa, Tatiana Xavier Costa, Rand Randall Martins and António Gouveia Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:83

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant; its pharmacological profile indicates a low risk for dopaminergic adverse effects. To date, there has been only a single case report of ...

    Authors: Yuji Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Maki Yamada, Naoko Satake, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Mitsutoshi Okazaki and Kazuyuki Nakagome

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:82

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  33. Content type: Case report

    The use of isavuconazole is approved for the management of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis, only in adults, as no paediatric pharmacology studies have been reported to date. Very few paediatric cases h...

    Authors: Marjorie Cornu, Bénédicte Bruno, Séverine Loridant, Pauline Navarin, Nadine François, Fanny Lanternier, Elisa Amzallag-Bellenger, François Dubos, Françoise Mazingue and Boualem Sendid

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:81

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) developed as anti-cancer drugs, also have anti-viral activity due to their ability to disrupt productive replication and dissemination in infected cells. Consequently,...

    Authors: Hari Krishna Ananthula, Scott Parker, Erin Touchette, R. Mark Buller, Gopi Patel, Daniel Kalman, Johanna S. Salzer, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Victoria Olson, Inger K. Damon, Tessa Moir-Savitz, Larry Sallans, Milton H. Werner, Catherine M. Sherwin and Pankaj B. Desai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:80

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index. Even minor overdoses must be treated in-hospital due to the risk of severe hypotension and bradycardia. We aimed to d...

    Authors: Mikkel B. Christensen, Kasper M. Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Salam Al-Gibouri, Espen Jimenez-Solem, Kim P. Dalhoff, Tonny S. Petersen and Jon T. Andersen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:78

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Pazopanib is indicated in the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). The aim of this study was to review the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib and see how these aspects ...

    Authors: María José Méndez-Vidal, Áurea Molina, Urbano Anido, Isabel Chirivella, Olatz Etxaniz, Eva Fernández-Parra, Marta Guix, Carolina Hernández, Julio Lambea, Álvaro Montesa, Álvaro Pinto, Silverio Ros and Enrique Gallardo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:77

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Severe systemic reactions resembling septic shock have been described following trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) administration. Nearly all cases described in the literature occurred in HIV-infected pat...

    Authors: Patricia Liu, Gregory P. Ranches and Jeffrey A. Gold

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:76

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  38. Content type: Case report

    Diffuse alveolar bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition that can be induced by several drugs. Whereas fatal cases have been reported in patients treated for other indications, no report have so f...

    Authors: Aija Zuleron Myro, Gisle Bjerke, Svetozar Zarnovicky and Trygve Holmøy

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:75

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Oxidative stress is one potential mechanism that explain the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling process. However, no study has compared different myocardial products of macromolecule oxidation aft...

    Authors: Maria Angélica Martins Lourenço, Mariana Gobbo Braz, Aline Garcia Aun, Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Elisa Moya Kazmarek, Tatiana Fernanda Bachiega, Silmeia Garcia Zanati, Paula Schmidt Azevedo, Bertha Furlan Polegato, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva, Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff and Marcos Ferreira Minicucci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:74

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Ethnicity variation is one of the main factors that may affect drug response in clinical practice. As MTHFR gene affects different transcriptome and proteome which affect the clinical response of drugs. Purpos...

    Authors: Shakir Ullah, Niaz Ali, Adnan Khan, Saad Ali, Haleema Rehna Nazish and Zia Uddin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:73

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Acute cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning, including organophosphate and carbamate poisoning, is a crucial problem in developing countries. Acute intoxication results in a cholinergic crisis, neurological ...

    Authors: Min-Chun Chuang, Chih-Hao Chang, Chung Shu Lee, Shih-Hong Li, Ching-Chung Hsiao, Yueh-Fu Fang and Meng-Jer Hsieh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:72

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  42. Content type: Research article

    3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been extensively studied as a potential therapeutic drug with free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects. However, whether DIM has similar effects on cardi...

    Authors: Qiang Luo, Ankang Yang, Quan Cao and Hongjing Guan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:71

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  43. Content type: Research article

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a relatively common condition that increases blood pressure in the arteries abnormally, causing problems such as heart disease and stroke. Blood pressure is a force that i...

    Authors: Amir Kazemi Korayem, Shahriar Ghamami and Zahra Bahrami

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:70

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  44. Content type: Case report

    Colchicine is a natural alkaloid that is mainly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Effective and toxic doses are very similar, but case reports of higher colchicine doses inducing acute toxicosis...

    Authors: Hongzhen Zhong, Zhiqing Zhong, Hongyan Li, Tianbiao Zhou and Weiji Xie

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:69

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Reviewer acknowledgments