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  1. Antiplatelet therapy is an important factor influencing the postterm patency rate of carotid artery stenting (CAS). Clopidogrel is a platelet aggregation inhibitor mediated by the adenosine diphosphate recepto...

    Authors: Pengfei Li, Mengying Cao, Ling Liu, Long Chen, Shuang Liang and Youbin Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:34
  2. The specific mechanism by which rotenone impacts thoracic aortic autophagy and apoptosis is unknown. We aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of rotenone on autophagy and apoptosis in rat thoracic aortic...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Chang, Zeyuan Li, Mi Tian, Ziwei Deng, Lingqin Zhu and Guanghua Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:33
  3. Pruritus, or itching, is a distressing symptom associated with various dermatological and systemic diseases. L-carnitine (βeta hydroxy-γ-tri methyl amino-butyric acid), is a naturally occurring substance, it c...

    Authors: Kiran Seemab, Arif-ullah Khan, Muhammad Imran Khan, Neelum Gul Qazi, Amber Mahmood Minhas and Fawad Ali
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:32
  4. In the current work, favipiravir (an antiviral drug) loaded pH-responsive polymeric hydrogels were developed by the free redical polymerization technique. Box-Behnken design method via Design Expert version 11...

    Authors: Arooj Khan, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Ahsan Waqar, Asif Mahmood, Talal Shaheer, Rai Muhammad Sarfraz, Kanwal Shahzadi, Azmat Ali Khan, Amer M. Alanazi, Milton Kumar Kundu, Md Rabiul Islam, Athanasios Alexiou and Marios Papadakis
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:31
  5. Calycosin, a flavonoid compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has shown anti-asthma benefits in house dust mite-induced asthma. Recent studies have suggested that innate-type cells, including group 2 in...

    Authors: Chunyan Tian, Qi Liu, Xiaoyu Zhang and Zhuying Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:30
  6. Monoclonal antibody therapy for Covid-19 springs up all over the world and get some efficiency. This research aims to explore the treating effect of BRII-196(Ambavirumab) plus BRII-198(Lomisivir) on Covid-19.

    Authors: Qin Yalan, Hao Lingfang, Liu Xisong, Liang Run, Zhang Junjing and Zhang’ An
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:29
  7. Dialysis patients are at high risk for drug-related problems (DRPs), which have significant consequences for their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Improved clinical outcomes can be achieved by preve...

    Authors: Aysel Pehlivanli, Sayeste Akkan Eren, Sule Sengul, Bilgen Basgut, Sehsuvar Erturk and A. Tanju Ozcelikay
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:28
  8. Nicotine, the main compound of smoking may exert its effects by changing the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). This study was conducted to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-dependent effect...

    Authors: Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Parviz Shahabi, Elham Karimi-Sales and Mohammad Reza Alipour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:27
  9. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is become an appealing target for therapeutics in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Dapagliflozin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabete...

    Authors: Lin Xiang, Min Liu, Guangda Xiang, Ling Yue, Junxia Zhang, Xiaoli Xu and Jing Dong
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:26
  10. It has become evident in the field of oncology that the outcome of medical treatment is influenced by the combined effect exerted on both cancer- and immune cells. Therefore, we evaluated potential immunologic...

    Authors: Tove Selvin, Malin Berglund, Lena Lenhammar, Magnus Lindskog, Malin Jarvius, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, Mårten Fryknäs and Claes R Andersson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:25
  11. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term risk of CKD and renal function declines using a combination of diuretics and SGLT2i.

    Authors: Han-Jie Lin, Pin-Yang Shih, Stella Chin-Shaw Tsai, Wu-Lung Chuang, Tsai-Ling Hsieh, Heng-Jun Lin, Teng-Shun Yu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chiu-Ying Chen and Kuang-Hsi Chang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:24
  12. This bioequivalence study was conducted to evaluate two oral formulations of cotrimoxazole tablets in healthy Chinese subjects. All 26 subjects recruited to this study were randomly and evenly classified into ...

    Authors: Xu Zuo, Xin Zhao, Jinjin Shi and Tiandong Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:23
  13. Radiation triggers salivary gland damage and excess iron accumulates in tissues induces cell injury. Flavonoids are found in some fruits and are utilized as potent antioxidants and radioprotective agents. This...

    Authors: Salwa Farid Ahmed, Eman M. F. El-Maghraby, Maha M. Rashad and Dina W. Bashir
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:22
  14. This study aimed to design and evaluate the transdermal permeation of Huperzine A ethosomes gel in vitro. Huperzine A ethosomes were prepared using the injection method, and their physical and chemical propert...

    Authors: Jiyu Wu, Renai Xu, Xiaowei Xu, Shiyuan Ye and Aifang Huang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:21
  15. With the increased use of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in cancer patients, adverse events (AEs) have garnered considerable interest. We conducted this pharmacovigilance study to evaluate the AEs ...

    Authors: Dehua Zhao, Xiaoqing Long and Jisheng Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:20
  16. Previous studies investigating the effect of oral supplementation of paricalcitol on reactive protein levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients reported inconsistent findings. In this systematic review a...

    Authors: Seyyed Mostafa Arabi, Mostafa Shahraki-Jazinaki, Mahla Chambari, Leila Sadat Bahrami, Sara Sabeti, Mohammaed Ibrahim Mohaildeen Gubari, Basil D. Roufogalis and Amirhossein Sahebkar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:19
  17. Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disease with complex pathogenesis, short median survival time, and high mortality. There are few effective drugs approved for pulmonary fibrosis treatment. This stud...

    Authors: Yanjun Zeng, Rui Hu, Wei Ma, Ying Ding, Yi Zhou, Xin Peng, Lixin Feng, Qingmei Cheng and Ziqiang Luo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:18
  18. Safinamide (SAF), an α-aminoamide derivative and a selective, reversible monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, has both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic (glutamatergic) properties. Several studies have explored...

    Authors: Te-Yu Hung, Sheng-Nan Wu and Chin-Wei Huang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:17
  19. Critically ill COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients receive thromboprophylaxis with the LMWH nadroparin. Whether a standard dosage is adequate in attaining the target anti-FXa levels (0.20–0.50 IU/ml) in these g...

    Authors: Monique M.R. de Maat, Henk J. van Leeuwen, Lian Roovers, Sabine J.G.M. Ahlers, Jolanda Lambers and Marcel M.C. Hovens
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:16
  20. Zinc Gluconate (ZG) is a safe and effective supplement for zinc. However, there is limited research on the optimal dosage for intravenous injection and the safety evaluation of animal models for ZG. This study...

    Authors: Yong-cai Wang, Xia Yang, Juan Xiao, Su-mei Wei, Ying Su, Xiu-qi Chen, Ting Huang and Qing-wen Shan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:15
  21. Uranium exposure may cause serious pathological injury to the body, which is attributed to oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of uranium toxicity has not been clarified. Here, we eval...

    Authors: Yuwei Yang, Chunmei Dai, Xi Chen, Bin Zhang, Xiaohan Li, Wenyu Yang, Jun Wang and Jiafu Feng
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:14
  22. Methotrexate (MTX) is the cornerstone of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment and is highly effective with low-dose intermittent administration. MTX is occasionally used in combination with non-steroidal anti-i...

    Authors: Takeshi Honma, Kenji Onda and Koichi Masuyama
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:13
  23. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after total joint arthroplasty is common and associated with delayed recovery. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of three different prophylactic regimen...

    Authors: Jinwei Xie, Yingcun Cai and Fuxing Pei
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:12
  24. Convenience stores in Guatemala provide essential consumer goods in communities, but many dispense antibiotics illegally. Federal legislation, passed in August of 2019, requires prescriptions for antibiotic pu...

    Authors: N. Rojop, P. Moreno, L. Grajeda, J. Romero, L. Reynoso, E. Muñoz, G. H. Palmer, C. Cordón-Rosales, D. R. Call and B. M. Ramay
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:11
  25. Cantharidin (CTD), the main toxic component of Mylabris, has been extensively used for tumor treatment in recent years. CTD-induced liver toxicity has attracted significant interest in clinic.

    Authors: Shan Li, Xiaotong Duan, Yixin Zhang, Cancan Zhao, Ming Yu, Xiaofei Li, Xiaomei Li and Jianyong Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:10
  26. The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori, H. pylori, is associated with significant digestive disorders. However, the effectiveness of bacterial eradication is declining due to drug resistance. A potent an...

    Authors: Kiarash Ghazvini, Hossein Kamali, Hadi Farsiani, Masoud Yousefi and Masoud Keikha
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:9
  27. We aimed to examine the efficiency of fixed daily dose enoxaparin (40 mg) thromboprophylaxis strategy for patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation.

    Authors: Amir Haim, Orli Avnery, Deborah Rubin-Asher, Hagay Amir, Kaifa Hashem, Harel Ben Zvi and Motti Ratmansky
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:8
  28. To comprehend the influences of fenofibrate on hepatic lipid accumulation and mitochondrial function-related signaling pathways in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) secondary to high-fat diet...

    Authors: Xuemei Wang, Jieying Wang, Cao Ying, Yuan Xing, Xuan Su and Ke Men
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:7
  29. Definity is an ultrasound contrast agent consisting of phospholipids-encapsulated perfluoropropane (PFP), also known as perflutren, microspheres, which is initially designed to enhance echocardiographic ultras...

    Authors: Pengfei Li, Ping Du, Jun Peng, Zhixia Zhao, Huiling Li, Weiyue Yu, Shumin Wang and Lihong Liu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:6
  30. Previous pharmacovigilance studies and a retroactive review of cancer clinical trial studies identified that women were more likely to experience drug adverse events (i.e., any unintended effects of medication...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Fisher, Amanda D. Clark, Emma F. Jones and Brittany N. Lasseigne
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:5
  31. This study aimed to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict changes in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD, PDE4 inhibition) of roflumilast (ROF) and ROF N-oxide ...

    Authors: Guangwei Jia, Congcong Ren, Hongyan Wang and Caixia Fan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:4
  32. Multiple pesticides are often used in combination for plant protection and public health. Therefore, it is important to analyze the physiological changes induced by multiple pesticides exposure. The objective ...

    Authors: Yu-Jie Liang, Ding-Xin Long, Shanshan Wang, Hui-Ping Wang and Yi-Jun Wu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:3
  33. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) influence the effectiveness of medication and thus determine the treatment outcomes of diseases managed with pharmacotherapy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severit...

    Authors: Allan Phillip Lule, Ogwal Basil Delic, Keneth Katunguka, Francis Muwonge and Tadele Mekuriya Yadesa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:2
  34. A connection between diabetes and an increased risk of epilepsy has been suggested by observational studies. Animal studies have also shown that antihyperglycemic drugs can improve seizures. However, it is unc...

    Authors: Kaiping Zhou, Huan Yang, Zhihao Xie, Weiping Wang and Zhenzhen Qu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2024 25:1
  35. Previously, observational studies showed that amlodipine can mitigate calcineurin inhibitor- and contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Herein, we aimed to measure the effect of amlodipine on renal ischem...

    Authors: Hadi Shirzad, Seyed Amin Mousavinezhad, Mohammad Panji and Moin Ala
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:82
  36. Quercetin (QC) possesses a variety of health-promoting effects in pure and in conjugation with nanoparticles. Since the mRNA-SIRT1/p66Shc pathway and microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the oxidative process,...

    Authors: Mahnaz Karami Chamgordani, Akram Bardestani, Shiva Ebrahimpour and Abolghasem Esmaeili
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:81
  37. Feminizing gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) for transgender individuals traditionally includes estradiol and androgen deprivation. Research has demonstrated that breast size as a result of GAHT in trans...

    Authors: Benthe A.M. Dijkman, Danithsia Helder, Lidewij S. Boogers, Noor C. Gieles, Jason O. van Heesewijk, Sjoerd te Slaa, Niels P.T.J. Liberton, Chantal M. Wiepjes, Christel J.M. de Blok, Martin den Heijer and Koen M.A. Dreijerink
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:80
  38. The prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased steadily with the continuous improvement of living standards. Some studies have reported the clinical effectiveness and safety of different doses of febuxostat in ...

    Authors: Hong Xie, Nan Hu, Ting Pan, Jun-Cai Wu, Miao Yu and Deng-Chao Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:79
  39. Microcystins (MCs), potent hepatotoxins pose a significant health risk to humans, particularly children, who are more vulnerable due to higher water intake and increased exposure during recreational activities.

    Authors: Madhura More, Somdatta Chatterjee, Punnag Saha, Dipro Bose, Ayushi Trivedi, Subhajit Roy and Saurabh Chatterjee
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:78
  40. Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is characterized by obstruction of venous blood flow by a thrombus. Survival data, frequency of disease recurrence, and bleeding rate in patients on anticoagulant therapy wi...

    Authors: Estefan Ramos-Isaza, Eduardo Tuta-Quintero, Alirio Bastidas-Goyes, Diana Diaz-Quijano, Carolina Aponte-Murcia, Julian Espitia-Angel, Daniel Pinto-Beltran, Johan Rincón-Hernández, Juan Sánchez-Cuellar, Jesus Pérez-Bueno and Luis F. Giraldo-Cadavid
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:77
  41. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an antineoplastic drug commonly used worldwide. Despite its spread, it causes fatal organ toxicity. Lung toxicity is a serious side effect of CP. Actually, in the past three years the ...

    Authors: Dalia H. El-Kashef and Mona Abdel Rahim
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:76
  42. Metformin is recommended as a first-line drug in the guidelines of the treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, high-quality evidence from clinical trials directly comparing the degree of hypoglycemic ...

    Authors: Ryosuke Ono, Chika Ogami, Chihiro Hasegawa, Hideto To, Yoshiaki Matsumoto and Yasuhiro Tsuji
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:75
  43. Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTIs)-based combination antiretroviral treatment in people living with HIV (PLWH) has been reportedly correlated with several adverse effects, such as weight gain, fetal ...

    Authors: Shin-Huei Kuo, Wen-Li Hsu, Ching-Ying Wu, Yu-Chang Lai and Tun-Chieh Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:74
  44. Our study aimed to assess the risk signals of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) caused by various antibiotics using real-world data and provide references for safe clinical applications.

    Authors: Haining Huang, Lanfang Li, Mingli Wu, Zhen Liu, Yanyan Zhao, Jing Peng, Xiaolei Ren and Shuai Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:73
  45. Nebulizers are commonly used to treat respiratory diseases, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. While inhalation therapy with antibodies has been evaluated in preclinical studies and clinical t...

    Authors: Soon Woo Hong, Kyung Hwa Chang, Chang Jae Woo, Ho Chul Kim, Bong Seop Kwak, Bong Joo Park and Ki Chang Nam
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:70
  46. The prediction of intestinal absorption of various drugs based on computer simulations has been a reality. However, in vivo pharmacokinetic simulations and virtual bioequivalence evaluation based on GastroPlus...

    Authors: Lu Wang, Jinliang Chen, Wenjun Chen, Zourong Ruan, Honggang Lou, Dandan Yang and Bo Jiang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:69
  47. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide belonging to the chloronicotinyl nitroguanidine chemical family. Toxicity of IMD for mammals in scientific studies has shown high mutagenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic...

    Authors: Amina Sardar, Mehwish David, Sarwat Jahan, Tayyaba Afsar, Aneela Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Ali Almajwal, Huma Shafique and Suhail Razak
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:68
  48. Atherosclerosis is a form of cardiovascular disease that affects the endothelium of the blood vessel. Series of events are involved in the pathophysiology of this disease which includes the breaking down of th...

    Authors: Temitope Akinwumi Ajani, Kenechukwu Obikeze, Zandisiwe E. Magwebu, Samuel Egieyeh and Chesa G. Chauke
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2023 24:67
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