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Table 2 Comparison of the proportion (%) of countries that attained a particular policy or indicator in low, mid and high income countries by 2007 [30]

From: The current status and trend of clinical pharmacology in developing countries

  WHO-countries income category
Parameter/Indicator Low income Mid-income High income
1. National Medicine Policy (NMP) 94% 84% 74%
Monitoring: Undertook assessment/audit of:    
 • National assessment of NMP 80% 65% 81%
 • Pharmaceutical/Drug situation 37% 48% 69%
 • Prescriptions audit 39% 46% 71%
 • Access 50% 52% 72%
2. Drug Regulatory Authority (DRA) 89% 85% 97%
 • Marketing authorization of Medicines 88% 84% 94%
 • Licensing of manuf., imp./expt. (av.) 91% 91% 99%
 • Licensing of prescribers & pharmacies 94% 99% 100%
 • Pharmacovigilance (ADR) 50% 64% 67%
 • Quality control system in place 68% 69% 96%
3. Access to essential medicines: patients within 1-hr walking distance to a clinic, 2003
 • Very low Access (< 50%) 31% 6% 0%
 • Low-Medium access (50 – 80%) 56% 38% 25%
 • Medium-High access (81-95%) 10% 31% 0%
 • Very high Access (< 95%) 2% 25% 75%
4. Medicine financing and/or pricing policy 93% 100% 100%
 i) With health insurance policy? Medicines received for free:
 • All medicines 35% 59% 55%
 • Malaria medicines 59% 72% 47%
 • Tuberculosis medicines 100% 92% 94%
 ii) Monitoring medicine retail prices:
 • Public sector 40% 58% 77%
 • Private sector 36% 49% 78%
 • NGO sector 17% 33% 71%
5. Medicines supply policy
 • Procurement policy for Ess. Meds 74% 90% 92%
6. Production and sale of medicines
 • R&D of new active substances 16% 27% 57%
 • Repackaging of finished dos-forms 83% 78% 81%
 • National legislation + TRIPS 55% 76% 86%
7. Rational use of medicines
  1. Key: ADR, adverse drug reactions; AMR, antimicrobial resistance; CME, continuing medical education; DTC, drug therapeutics committees; Ess. Meds, essential medicines; HIC, high income countries; LIC, low income countries; MIC, middle income countries; NGO, non-government organisation; NMP, National medicine policy; R&D, research and development; TRIPS, trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights.