Skip to main content

Table 2 Demographic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients within United States data sources

From: Determinants of saxagliptin use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral anti-diabetic drugs

  US Medicare HealthCore Integrated Reseach DatabaseSM
Characteristic* Saxagliptin Other OAD Standardized difference Saxagliptin Other OAD Standardized difference
  (n = 51,976) (n = 493,432)   (n =8,057) (n =77,808)  
Mean (SD) age, years 70.4 (11.1) 69.9 (11.0) 0.04 52.9 (8.4) 52.9 (8.4) 0.01
Male sex 42.1% 42.8% 0.01 60.0% 59.5% 0.01
US census region       
East North Central 12.7% 12.8% <0.01 20.7% 21.2% 0.01
East South Central 10.0% 10.0% <0.01 10.0% 10.1% <0.01
Middle Atlantic 16.0% 15.9% <0.01 9.0% 8.9% <0.01
Mountain 3.1% 3.1% <0.01 1.9% 1.9% <0.01
New England 2.8% 2.8% <0.01 5.7% 5.9% <0.01
Pacific 12.8% 13.1% <0.01 14.6% 14.8% <0.01
South Atlantic 24.1% 24.0% <0.01 30.5% 29.9% 0.01
West North Central 5.2% 5.0% <0.01 5.3% 5.4% <0.01
West South Central 13.2% 13.2% <0.01 2.2% 1.9% 0.02
Other OAD initiated at index date       
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 0% 0.6% - 0% 0.4% -
  Acarbose 0% 0.5% - 0% 0.3% -
  Miglitol 0% 0.0% - 0% 0.0% -
Biguanide: Metformin 0% 51.5% - 0% 69.1% -
Meglitinides 0% 2.4% - 0% 0.9% -
  Nateglinide 0% 1.0% - 0% 0.4% -
  Repaglinide 0% 1.3% - 0% 0.5% -
Sulfonylureas 0% 33.8% - 0% 22.0% -
  Chlorpropamide 0% 0.0% - 0% 0.0% -
  Glimepiride 0% 11.0% - 0% 8.1% -
  Glipizide 0% 14.3% - 0% 8.3% -
  Glyburide (glibenclamide in UK data sources) 0% 8.5% - 0% 5.6% -
Tolazamide 0% 0.0% - 0% 0.0% -
  Tolbutamide 0% 0.0% - 0% 0.0% -
Thiazolidinediones 0% 11.7% - 0% 7.7% -
  Pioglitazone 0% 11.0% - 0% 7.3% -
  Rosiglitazone 0% 0.8% - 0% 0.4% -
On glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist 2.1% 1.1% 0.07 3.8% 2.9% 0.05
On insulin 15.9% 14.9% 0.03 9.7% 8.3% 0.05
Mean (SD) number of hemoglobin A1c measures 1.3 (0.9) 0.9 (0.9) 0.51 1.1 (0.8) 0.8 (0.8) 0.50
Severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (prior 180 d)       
Cerebrovascular disease 10.5% 10.6% <0.01 2.4% 2.4% <0.01
Coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation 40.8% 38.2% 0.05 11.8% 11.1% 0.02
Metabolic (ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar,coma) 1.3% 1.3% <0.01 0.7% 0.7% <0.01
Nephropathy 20.2% 15.7% 0.11 5.0% 3.6% 0.07
Neuropathy 22.9% 18.1% 0.12 8.3% 6.8% 0.06
Peripheral vascular disease 18.4% 16.6% 0.05 3.9% 3.4% 0.03
Retinopathy 13.3% 10.5% 0.09 5.3% 3.9% 0.07
Unspecified additional diabetic complications 7.9% 6.9% 0.04 3.8% 2.7% 0.06
Medical comorbidities       
Allergic rhinitis/hay fever 7.1% 5.6% 0.06 5.2% 4.6% 0.03
Asthma 7.7% 7.9% 0.01 3.8% 4.3% 0.02
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/bronchitis 12.5% 13.4% 0.03 2.7% 3.0% 0.02
Dermatologic disorders       
  Eczema 3.5% 3.0% 0.02 2.2% 1.9% 0.02
  Psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis 0.9% 0.9% <0.01 0.9% 0.9% 0.01
Gastrointestinal disease       
  Cirrhosis 0.8% 0.8% <0.01 0.3% 0.4% 0.01
  Gallbladder disease 2.2% 2.3% 0.01 1.1% 1.1% <0.01
  Hemochromatosis 0.3% 0.2% 0.01 0.2% 0.2% <0.01
Hyperlipidemia 77.1% 66.3% 0.24 62.0% 48.7% 0.27
Hypertension 85.3% 78.1% 0.18 60.9% 50.9% 0.20
Infections       
  Hepatitis B virus infection 0.2% 0.2% <0.01 0.2% 0.2% 0.01
  Hepatitis C virus infection 0.8% 0.9% 0.02 0.5% 0.5% <0.01
  Human immunodeficiency virus 0.2% 0.4% 0.02 0.1% 0.2% 0.03
Malignancy       
  Hematologic 1.3% 1.3% 0.01 0.6% 0.6% 0.01
  Solid organ 8.2% 8.6% 0.01 3.3% 3.3% <0.01
Obesity 11.1% 10.7% 0.01 9.3% 9.4% <0.01
Rheumatoid arthritis 2.8% 2.5% 0.02 0.9% 0.9% <0.01
Medications       
Acetaminophen/paracetamol 28.1% 26.3% 0.04 20.2% 19.8% 0.01
Anti-asthmatic agents 14.4% 12.5% 0.05 8.3% 7.9% 0.01
Antibacterials 46.3% 40.3% 0.12 38.1% 35.7% 0.05
Anticonvulsants 5.4% 5.6% 0.01 7.2% 7.5% 0.01
Antifungals 10.1% 8.1% 0.07 6.8% 5.7% 0.05
Antihistamines 11.8% 9.4% 0.08 6.4% 5.7% 0.03
Anti-hyperlipidemic agents 69.2% 52.8% 0.34 53.5% 38.6%) 0.30
Antihypertensive agents       
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 43.1% 37.2% 0.12 35.8% 28.0% 0.17
  Angiotensin receptor blockers 28.5% 18.0% 0.25 20.1% 14.1% 0.16
  Beta blockers 44.0% 36.1% 0.16 21.2% 18.4% 0.07
  Calcium channel blockers 31.7% 26.3% 0.12 16.0% 13.9% 0.06
  Loop diuretics 23.1% 18.1% 0.12 5.1% 4.7% 0.02
  Other antihypertensive agents 11.9% 9.0% 0.10 4.8% 3.9% 0.04
  Thiazide diuretics 21.7% 15.6% 0.16 18.2% 15.0% 0.09
Antivirals 2.3% 2.0% 0.02 1.9% 2.5% 0.04
Non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory 17.4% 14.7% 0.08 13.9% 12.9% 0.03
Other antiplatelet/anticoagulant agents       
  Aspirin 0.8% 0.6% 0.02 0.1% 0.1% 0.01
  Clopidogrel 13.7% 10.4% 0.10 4.0% 3.6% 0.02
  Low-molecular-weight heparin 0.5% 0.7% 0.02 0.4% 0.4% 0.01
  Warfarin 7.4% 7.0% 0.02 2.1% 1.7% 0.03
Other medications       
  Allopurinol 5.4% 4.1% 0.06 2.5% 2.4% <0.01
  Anti-arrhythmics 13.6% 12.2% 0.04 4.7% 4.6% 0.01
  Immune modulators/immunosuppressants 4.5% 4.1% 0.02 2.2% 2.4% 0.01
  Nitroglycerin 4.6% 3.8% 0.04 1.3% 1.3% <0.01
  Urinary anti-spasmodics 5.4% 4.5% 0.04 0.9% 1.2% 0.03
Psychotropic agents       
  Antidepressants 27.4% 25.3% 0.05 19.1% 18.9% <0.01
  Antipsychotics 7.5% 7.8% 0.01 2.1% 2.3% 0.01
Prior OAD Therapy 77.6% 36.1% 0.92 66.7% 23.2% 0.97
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 0.8% 0.3% 0.08 0.4% 0.1% 0.05
  Acarbose 0.7% 0.2% 0.07 0.4% 0.1% 0.05
  Miglitol 0.1% 0.0% 0.03 0.0% 0.0% 0.02
Biguanide: Metformin 51.4% 37.4% 0.29 51.9% 42.6% 0.19
Meglitinides 3.0% 1.1% 0.13 1.4% 0.4% 0.10
  Nateglinide 1.5% 0.5% 0.10 0.8% 0.2% 0.08
  Repaglinide 1.6% 0.7% 0.09 0.7% 0.2% 0.07
Sulfonylureas 42.5% 16.8% 0.59 28.0% 8.7% 0.51
  Chlorpropamide 0.0% 0.0% <0.01 0.0% 0.0% 0.01
  Glimepiride 16.5% 5.3% 0.37 12.3% 3.2% 0.34
  Glipizide 17.7% 8.8% 0.27 11.0% 4.3% 0.26
  Glyburide 9.5% 5.2% 0.16 5.2% 2.0% 0.17
  Tolazamide 0.0% 0.0% 0.01 0% 0% -
  Tolbutamide 0.0% 0.0% <0.01 0% 0% -
Thiazolidinediones 24.2% 8.4% 0.44 15.0% 5.5% 0.32
  Pioglitazone 21.4% 7.3% 0.41 13.6% 5.0% 0.30
  Rosiglitazone 3.2% 1.9% 0.08 1.5% 0.9% 0.05
  1. Abbreviations: OAD = oral anti-diabetic drug; SD = standard deviation.
  2. *Characteristics are presented as percentages unless otherwise indicated.
  3. Matching criteria for which a random sample (without replacement) of up to ten new initiators of non-DPP-4 inhibitor OADs were selected for each saxagliptin initiator.
  4. Defined as use of an oral anti-diabetic drug within the 180 days prior to the initiation of the index drug. Denominator adjusted to exclude those on index drug.