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Table 7 Antibiotic associated errors in study population (N = 284)

From: Causality and preventability assessment of adverse drug events of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay: a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan

Variables Long length of stay, N = 227,
n (%)
Short length of stay, N = 57,
n (%)
Total, N = 284, n (%)
Type of medication errors
 Wrong drug 100 (44.1) 14 (24.6) 114 (40.1)
 Wrong dose 35 (15.4) 6 (10.5) 41 (14.4)
 Wrong route 2 (0.9) 3 (5.3) 5 (1.8)
 Wrong time 13 (5.7) 2 (3.5) 15 (5.3)
 Deteriorated drug 3 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.1)
 Omission 12 (5.3) 3 (5.3) 15 (5.3)
 Wrong dosage form 3 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.1)
 Non-adherence 13 (5.7) 4 (7.0) 17 (5.9)
 Monitoring error 46 (20.3) 25 (43.9) 71 (25.0)
Stages of errors
 Physician ordering 59 (25.9) 4 (7.0) 63 (22.2)
 Transcribing 41 (18.1) 7 (12.3) 48 (16.9)
 Dispensing pharmacist 36 (15.9) 14 (24.6) 50 (17.6)
 Nurse administering 37 (16.3) 9 (15.8) 46 (16.2)
 Patient monitoring 37 (16.3) 23 (40.4) 60 (21.1)
 Othersa 17 (7.5) 0 (0.0) 17 (5.9)
Causes of errors
 Lack of knowledge about the patientsb 46 (20.3) 2 (3.5) 48 (16.9)
 Lack of information about antibioticsc 77 (33.9) 14 (24.6) 91 (32.0)
 Non-adherence to policies and proceduresd 73 (32.2) 36 (63.2) 109 (38.4)
 Miscellaneouse 31 (13.7) 5 (8.8) 36 (12.7)
  1. aMedication errors due to patient non-adherence
  2. bInformation about allergy, lab tests results, concomitant medications and conditions either not available or noted
  3. cIndication for antibiotic use, compatibility, available dosage form, dosing guidelines and route of administration
  4. dUse of abbreviation in medication ordering, incomplete medication order processed, deviation from treatment protocols, delay in dispensing, use of non-standard dosing schedule, and drug preparation errors
  5. eIllegible handwriting of physicians, memory lapse, and unavailability of drugs