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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized controlled trials

From: Cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled cardiovascular outcome trials with trial sequential analysis

Trial ELIXA LEADER SUSTAIN 6 EXSCEL
Year 2015 2016 2016 2017
No. of patients 6068 9340 3297 14,752
No. of countries 49 32 20 35
No. of study sites NA 310 230 687
Median duration of follow-up, years 2.1 3.8 2.1 3.2
Median duration of exposure to treatment, years 1.9 3.5 1.8 2.4
GLP1R agonist Lixisenatide Liraglutide Semaglutide Exenatide
Control Placebo Placebo Placebo Placebo
Age, years 60.3 64.3 64.6 56.0
Male, % 69.3 64.3 60.7 62.0
Diabetes duration, years 9.3 12.7 13.9 12.0
Body mass index 30.2 32.5 32.8 31.7
Current smoking, % 11.7 NA NA 11.6
HbA1c, % 7.7 8.7 8.7 8.0
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 129 ± 17 135.9 ± 17.8 135.6 ± 17.2 NA
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg NA 77.2 ± 10.3 77.0 ± 10.0 NA
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 78.8 ± 35.4 NA 82.3 ± 45.6 NA
History of cardiovascular disease     
Hypertension, % 76.4 NA 92.8 NA
Coronary artery disease, % 100 81.4 60.4 52.9
Heart failure, % 22.4 17.9 24.3 16.6
Stroke, % 5.5 NA 12.4 17.3
Peripheral arterial disease, % 7.7 NA NA 18.9
Chronic kidney disease, % 23.2 24.7 28.5 21.7
Diabetes medications     
Insulin, % 39.1 44.6 58.0 46.4
Metformin, % 66.3 76.4 73.2 76.8
Sulfonylureas, % 33.2 50.5 42.8 36.6
Thiazolidinediones, % 1.6 6.2 2.3 3.9
DPP-4 inhibitor, % NA < 0.1 0.2 15.0
Cardiovascular Medications     
ACEI or ARB, % 85.0 82.8 83.5 80.0
Statin, % 92.7 72.1 72.8 73.5
Anti-thrombotic, % 97.5 74.3 76.3 73.6
Beta-blocker, % 84.5 55.4 57.4 55.8
Aldosterone antagonists, % NA 5.4 5.9 6.2
NCT No. NCT01147250 NCT01179048 NCT01720446 NCT02098395
  1. ACEI angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor antagonist, GLP1R glucagon-like peptide 1–receptor agonist, LDL cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NA not available