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Table 1 Characteristics of the included randomized controlled trials

From: Beta-blockers for the primary prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

First author, year of publication N. patients Inclusion criteria Follow-up (months) Arm Dose Age, yrs Female, n (%) Radiotherapy, n (%)
Kalay, 2006 [6] 50 Patients with malignancy and planned ANT therapy 6 Carvedilol 12.5 mg, once daily 46.8 ± 14 22 (88) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 49.0 ± 9.8 21 (84) 0
Georgakopoulos, 2010 [5] 125 Lymphoma patients 31 Metoprolol 100 mg, daily target doses 51.0 ± 18.0 20 (48) 8 (19)
Placebo Corresponding dose 49.1 ± 19.4 19 (47) 9 (23)
Kaya, 2012 45 Breast cancer patients planned anthracycline-based chemotherapy 6 Nebivolol 5 mg, once daily 51.4 ± 9.4 27 (100) 7 (26)
Placebo Corresponding dose 50.5 ± 11.1 18 (100) 5 (28)
Bosch, 2013 [8] 90 Acute leukemia or patients with malignant hemopathies undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and without LVSD 6 Carvedilol 25 mg, twice daily 49.7 ± 13.9 18 (40) 12 (27)
Placebo Corresponding dose 50.9 ± 13.2 21 (47) 4 (9)
Liu, 2013 [13] 40 Patients with breast cancer and chemotherapy with FEC 6 Chemotherapy Circle Carvedilol 5 mg, twice daily 53 (39–68)a 20 (100) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 54 (37–65)a 20 (100) 0
Elitok, 2014 [14] 80 Patients with breast cancer and anticipated ANT therapy 6 Carvedilol 12.5 mg, twice daily 54.3 ± 9.3 40 (100) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 52.9 ± 11.2 40 (100) 0
Beheshti, 2016 [16] 70 Pathologically confirmed nonmetastatic breast cancer patients 6 Carvedilol 6.25 mg, twice daily 42.0 30 (100) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 39.9 40 (100) 0
Gulati, 2016 [12] 130 Women with early stage breast cancer who after breast cancer surgery were scheduled to initiate chemotherapy with FEC 10 to 61 weeks Candesartan + Metoprolol 32 mg + 100 mg, once daily 50.0 ± 8.9 30 (100) 18 (60.0)
Candesartan + Placebo 32 mg + corresponding dose, once daily 51.7 ± 10.7 32 (100) 19 (59.4)
Metoprolol + Placebo 100 mg + corresponding dose, once daily 50.5 ± 9.1 32 (100) 22 (68.8)
Placebo + Placebo. Corresponding dose 50.8 ± 9.2 32 (100) 23 (71.9)
Jhorawat1, 2016 [15] 54 Patients diagnosed with lymphoreticular malignancy and planned for chemotherapy (CT) with regimen containing ANT 6 Carvedilol 12.5 mg, once daily 43.89 ± 15.66 4 (14.8) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 38.74 ± 18.36 9 (33.3) 0
Nabati, 2017 [17] 91 Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer treated with ANT therapy 6 Carvedilol 6.125 mg, twice daily 47.10 ± 12.17 46 (100) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 47.57 ± 8.75 45 (100) 0
Avila, 2018 [9] 200 Patients with HER2-negative breast cancer tumor status and therapy that included anthracycline, cyclophosphamide 6 Carvedilol 25 mg, twice a day 50.80 ± 10.10 96 (100) 0
Placebo Corresponding dose 52.9 ± 9.05 96 (100) 0
  1. a: values are median (range); #: values are mean
  2. Values are mean ± standard deviation
  3. ANT Anthracycline, N/A not available