Skip to main content

Table 4 Prevalence of the selected DDIs (‘List B’)

From: Countrywide prevalence of critical drug interactions in Hungarian outpatients: a retrospective analysis of pharmacy dispensing data

Drug 1 - Drug 2 Potential adverse consequence of the interaction Prevalence per 100000 prescriptions (Number of cases) R2 Change 2013–2016 (%) Interaction rate*
2013 2014 2015 2016    2013 2014 2015 2016
Potassium chloride - ACE inhibitorsa Hyperkalemia 352.04 (612284) 355.89 (622256) 334.14 (588480) 338.53 (597064) 0.46 DNF 373.23, 38.45 390.52, 39.05 385.01, 36.60 396.43, 36.35
Potassium sparing diureticsb - ACE inhibitorsc Hyperkalemia 241.56 (420132) 247.91 (433452) 240.62 (423769) 246.54 (434824) 0.38 DNF 319.27, 27.79 336.72, 28.45 335.44, 27.41 348.54, 27.38
Potassium chloride - Potassium sparing diureticsb Hyperkalemia 85.93 (149452) 86.99 (152093) 81.10 (142823) 82.82 (146061) 0.39 DNF 91.10, 113.57 95.45, 118.15 93.44, 113.05 96.98, 117.08
Sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim - ACE inhibitorsc Hyperkalemia 11.40 (19822) 10.64 (18603) 10.28 (18099) 9.86 (17394) 0.97 −12 64.28, 1.24 70.11, 1.17 65.97, 1.13 67.05, 1.06
Vitamin K antagonistsd - Platelet aggregation inhibitorse Bleeding 93.62 (162828) 97.67 (170779) 102.49 (180508) 98.27 (173316) 0.53 DNF 87.00, 22.48 92.15, 23.83 99.36, 25.02 97.40, 24.71
NOACsf - Platelet aggregation inhibitorse Bleeding 0.77 (1334) 2.84 (4961) 7.18 (12651) 12.90 (22748) 0.96 + 1605 23.25, 0.18 36.63, 0.69 51.11, 1.75 57.70, 3.24
NOACsf - NSAIDsg Bleeding 0.48 (830) 2.06 (3607) 5.08 (8944) 8.77 (15472) 0.97 + 1764 14.47, 0.12 26.64, 0.51 36.13, 1.22 39.24, 2.09
Vitamin K antagonistsd - Amiodarone Bleeding 17.65 (30690) 17.96 (31398) 18.02 (31741) 17.47 (30813) 0.03 DNF 16.40, 276.48 16.94, 279.31 17.47, 281.21 17.32, 267.92
Vitamin K antagonistsd - Azole antifungalsh Bleeding 0.56 (971) 0.67 (1175) 0.57 (998) 0.66 (1164) 0.23 DNF 0.52, 4.00 0.63, 4.52 0.55, 3.70 0.65, 4.48
Vitamin K antagonistsd - Sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim Bleeding 1.51 (2618) 1.37 (2387) 1.26 (2216) 1.21 (2127) 0.96 −19 1.40, 8.49 1.29, 9.00 1.22, 8.08 1.20, 8.20
Vitamin K antagonistsd - Metronidazole Bleeding 0.42 (730) 0.39 (678) 0.44 (770) 0.45 (798) 0.54 DNF 0.39, 5.27 0.37, 4.70 0.42, 5.39 0.45, 5.77
Vitamin K antagonistsd - Ciprofloxacin Bleeding 2.36 (4107) 2.37 (4152) 2.50 (4408) 2.09 (3681) 0.19 DNF 2.19, 7.45 2.24, 7.40 2.43, 8.09 2.07, 7.42
Narcotic analgesicsi - Benzodiazepinesj Respiratory depression and sedation 101.23 (176057) 109.39 (191260) 112.79 (198647) 114.47 (201896) 0.91 + 15 125.09, 27.06 127.73, 28.70 135.34, 30.64 137.90, 31.57
Verapamil - Beta-blockersk Cardiovascular adverse effects (e.g. bradycardia) 6.14 (10677) 5.77 (10093) 5.45 (9593) 4.93 (8697) 0.98 −19 36.00, 3.22 38.03, 3.29 39.67, 3.32 39.18, 3.21
Carbamazepine - Clarithromycin Carbamazepine toxicity, reduced clarithromycin effect 0.16 (274) 0.15 (256) 0.11 (199) 0.11 (197) 0.89 −28 0.54, 0.64 0.52, 0.57 0.43, 0.44 0.43, 0.56
Colchicine - Clarithromycin Colchicine toxicity (e.g. pancytopenia) 0.00 (5) 0.00 (4) 0.02 (28) 0.01 (11) LP LP 0.10, 0.01 0.09, 0.01 0.61, 0.06 0.24, 0.03
Digoxin - Amiodarone Digoxin toxicity 0.81 (1406) 0.75 (1318) 0.67 (1179) 0.49 (864) 0.92 −39 7.39, 12.67 7.82, 11.72 7.59, 10.44 6.27, 7.52
Digoxin - Verapamil Digoxin toxicity 1.26 (2190) 1.10 (1927) 0.83 (1456) 0.64 (1121) 0.99 −49 11.51, 7.38 11.44, 7.26 9.37, 6.02 8.12, 5.05
HMG CoA reductase inhibitorsl - Ciclosporin Statin toxicity (e.g. rhabdomyolysis) 0.08 (136) 0.08 (134) 0.10 (175) 0.08 (145) 0.22 DNF 0.03, 15.84 0.03, 15.50 0.04, 17.73 0.04, 14.10
Tamoxifen - CYP2D6 inhibitorsm Reduced tamoxifen effect 0.04 (70) 0.02 (43) 0.03 (60) 0.01 (22) LP LP 5.63, 0.10 3.78, 0.06 4.71, 0.08 1.68, 0.03
  Total 918.02 (1596613) 944.04 (1650576) 923.84 (1626745) 940.37 (1658416) 0.56 DNF     
  1. LP – not calculated because of low prevalence (< 100 cases/year), DNF – not calculated because the linear model does not fit (R2 < 0.7)
  2. *number of interaction cases per 1000 prescriptions of Drug 1 and Drug 2, respectively
  3. abenazepril, captopril, cilazapril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, trandolapril
  4. bamiloride, eplerenone, spironolactone
  5. ccaptopril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, ramipril
  6. dacenocoumarol, warfarin
  7. eacetylsalicylic acid, cilostazol, clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticlopidine
  8. fdabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban
  9. gaceclofenac, acemetacin, dexibuprofen, diclofenac, indometacin, lornoxicam, meloxicam, naproxen, niflumic acid, nimesulide
  10. hfluconazole
  11. ifentanyl, tramadol
  12. jalprazolam, clonazepam
  13. kmetoprolol
  14. latorvastatin, simvastatin
  15. mbupropion, duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine