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Table 3 Characteristics of study population from identified clusters in comparison to those from the remainder regions of NSW

From: Adverse drug reactions due to opioid analgesic use in New South Wales, Australia: a spatial-temporal analysis

  2004–05 to 2008–09 2009–10 to 2013–14
Clusters
n (%)
Non-clusters
n (%)
X2 p-value Clusters
n (%)
Non-clusters
n (%)
X2 p-value
Total 3255 (100) 5148 (100)   7493 (100) 10,880 (100)  
Age group (years)
  < 18 77 (2.4) 141 (2.7) 0.005 161 (2.1) 235 (2.2) 0.396
 18–44 509 (15.6) 820 (15.9)   1098 (14.7) 1585 (14.6)  
 45–64 625 (19.2) 1073 (20.8)   1403 (18.7) 2247 (20.7)  
 65–84 1404 (43.1) 2263 (44.0)   3252 (43.4) 4469 (41.1)  
 85+ 640 (19.7) 851 (16.5)   1579 (21.1) 2344 (21.5)  
Gender
 Male 1401 (43.0) 2032 (39.5) 0.001 3006 (40.1) 4450 (40.9) 0.288
 Female 1854 (57.0) 3116 (60.5)   4487 (59.9) 6430 (59.1)  
Marital status
 Single 1605 (49.3) 2616 (50.8) 0.178 3946 (52.7) 5659 (52.0) 0.386
 Others 1650 (50.7) 2532 (49.2)   3547 (47.3) 5221 (48.0)  
Private insurance
 Yes 1043 (32.0) 1269 (24.7) < 0.001 1941 (25.9) 3501 (32.2) < 0.001
 No 2212 (68.0) 3879 (75.3)   5552 (74.1) 7379 (67.8)  
Socioeconomic disadvantage
 1st (most) 589 (18.1) 1255 (24.4) < 0.001 2008 (26.8) 2114 (19.4) < 0.001
 2nd 639 (19.6) 1114 (21.6)   1897 (25.3) 2050 (18.8)  
 3rd 609 (18.7) 997 (19.4)   1675 (22.4) 2092 (19.2)  
 4th 660 (20.3) 963 (18.7)   1385 (18.5) 1955 (18.0)  
 5th (least) 758 (23.3) 819 (15.9)   528 (7.0) 2669 (24.5)  
Rurality of residence
 Urban 3245 (99.7) 4649 (90.3) <.0001 7251 (96.8) 10,137 (93.2) < 0.001
 Rural 10 (0.3) 499 (9.7)   242 (3.2) 743 (6.8)  
Convenient access to pharmacy
 More 3115 (95.7) 4399 (85.5) < 0.001 6752 (90.1) 9821 (90.3) 0.727
 Less 140 (4.3) 749 (14.5)   741 (9.9) 1059 (9.7)  
Disposition status
 Death 196 (6.0) 196 (3.8) < 0.001 276 (3.7) 373 (3.4) 0.357
 Alive 3059 (94.0) 4952 (96.2)   7217 (96.3) 10,507 (96.6)  
Severity of comorbidities
 Minor 1760 (54.1) 3023 (58.7) 0.005 4467 (59.6) 6585 (60.5) 0.995
 Moderate 744 (22.9) 1073 (20.8)   1723 (23.0) 2305 (21.2)  
 Severe 751 (23.1) 1052 (20.4)   1303 (17.4) 1990 (18.3)  
Clinical conditionsa
 CHD 282 (8.7) 381 (7.4) 0.037 281 (3.8) 396 (3.6) 0.696
 Cancer 578 (17.8) 795 (15.4) 0.005 983 (13.1) 1566 (14.4) 0.014
 BDD 199 (6.1) 211 (4.1) < 0.001 373 (5.0) 379 (3.5) < 0.001
 COPD 234 (7.2) 326 (6.3) 0.125 421 (5.6) 511 (4.7) 0.005
 CVD 96 (2.9) 128 (2.5) 0.199 140 (1.9) 208 (1.9) 0.832
 Diabetes 454 (13.9) 685 (13.3) 0.402 950 (12.7) 1402 (12.9) 0.679
 Osteoarthritis 147 (4.5) 201 (3.9) 0.170 187 (2.5) 279 (2.6) 0.771
Number of mental disorders
 None 2436 (74.8) 4115 (79.9) < 0.001 5467 (73.0) 8346 (76.7) < 0.001
 Single 674 (20.7) 869 (16.9)   1699 (22.7) 2232 (20.5)  
 Multiple (≥2) 145 (4.5) 164 (3.2)   327 (4.4) 302 (2.8)  
  1. aSelected clinical conditions including coronary heart diseases (CHD), cancer, brain degenerative disorders (BDD), chronic obstructive respiratory diseases (COPD), cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, and osteoarthritis, were compared between those with and without a condition, respectively