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Table 2 Clinical presentation, management and clinical outcomes of patients with carbamazepine intoxication. Continuous variables are presented as average ± SEM, ordinal variables are presented as number and percentage

From: The effect of multidrug exposure on neurological manifestations in carbamazepine intoxication: a nested case-control study

  All patients Neurological Symptoms P value
  (n = 80) Non-severe
(n = 70)
Severe
(n = 10)
 
Neurological Presentation:
 No symptoms 11 (13.8) 11 (15.9) 0 (0)  
 Drowsiness 58 (72.5) 58 (84.1) 0 (0)  
 No response to voice/pain 10 (12.50) 0 (0) 10 (100)  
 CBZ level
(Average, mcg/mL)
26.3 ± 1.8 24.4 ± 1.2 40.0 ± 11.1 0.19
CBZ level (mcg/ml):     0.03
 18–20 41 (51.2) 38 (54.3) 3 (30)  
 20–30 22 (27.5) 21 (30) 1 (10)  
 30–40 10 (12.50) 6 (8.6) 4 (40)  
  > 40 7 (8.8) 5 (7.1) 2 (20)  
Carbamazepine dose (acute ingestion, mg) 3623.1 ± 568.0
(n = 65)
3338.3 ± 581.9
(n = 58)
5982.9 ± 2064.9
(n = 7)
0.15
Suicide attempt 28 (36) 22 (31.4) 7 (70) 0.02
Other CNS medications: 53 (66.2) 43 (61.4) 10 (100) 0.003
 Benzodiazepines 22 (27.5) 15 (21.4) 7 (70) 0.002
 Anti-epileptics 28 (35) 26 (37.1) 2 (20) 0.27
 Anti-psychotics 12 (15) 9 (12.9) 3 (30) 0.19
 Anti-depressants 9 (11.2) 5 (7.1) 4 (40) 0.01
 Analgesics 3 (3.7) 2 (2.9) 1 (10) 0.34
 Anti-parkinsonians 2 (2.5) 2 (2.9) 1 (10) 0.34
Vital signs on presentation:
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 137.2 ± 2.8 138.3 ± 3.0 129.0 ± 5.9 0.28
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.5 ± 1.6 80.1 ± 1.7 75.3 ± 5.0 0.33
 Heart rate (BPM) 89. 5 ± 2.0 88.1 ± 2.0 99.1 ± 6. 9 0.07
O2 Saturation% (n = 56) 94.3 ± 1.1 95.1 ± 0.6 89. 9 ± 6.4 0.44
 ECG abnormalitiesa 8 (10) 6 (8.6) 2 (20) 0.52
Management:
 Activated charcoal 22 (27.5) 17 (24.3) 5 (50) 0.11
 Nasogastric tube 26 (33) 19 (27.5) 7 (70) 0.01
 Mechanical ventilation 6 (7.5) 2 (2.9) 4 (40) 0.0001
 ICU admission 16 (20) 10 (14.3) 6 (60) 0.002
 Hospital stay (days) 5.9 ± 1.17 5.4 ± 1.29 8.8 ± 2.1 0.34
  1. *P-value was calculated by t-tests for continuous variables and by Chi-square test for ordinal variables
  2. aECG abnormalities, including: Prolonged QTc, T wave changes, AV Block, Atrial Flutter, AF, Bradycardia