Skip to main content

Table 1 Prehospital drugs and clinical characteristics of the study population and in study patients according to hyponatremia (N = 565)

From: Furosemide and spironolactone doses and hyponatremia in patients with heart failure

Clinical characteristics All patients Hyponatremic patients (N = 183) Non-hyponatremic patients (N = 382) p
Age (years ± SD) 73.1 ± 10.6 74.3 ± 9.4 72.9 ± 10.5 0.15
Male gender (%) 62.6 62.3 63.4 0.81
LVEF ≤45% (%) 41.1 48.1 37.7 0.02*
Previous AMI (%) 20.5 24.6 18.6 0.10
Arterial hypertension (%) 66.9 63.4 68.6 0.22
Diabetes mellitus (%) 33.8 38.8 34.4 0.08
Kidney failure (%) 28.2 31.7 26.4 0.19
Alcohol consumption (%) 30.3 33.3 23.8 0.01*
Current smokers (%) 14.5 20.2 11.8 0.01*
Atrial fibrillation/ flutter (%) 49.5 41.5 53.4 0.008*
Prehospital medication (%)
 Furosemide 60.3 64.5 58.4 0.17
 Hydrochlorothiazide 16.5 14.8 17.2 0.45
 Spironolactone 17.9 24.6 14.7 0.004*
 β-blocker 55.4 51.9 57.1 0.25
 Calcium antagonist 20.5 19.1 21.2 0.14
 ARB 10.9 13.1 9.9 0.26
 ACEI 40.7 39.3 41.4 0.65
 Aspirin 31.1 27.9 32.7 0.24
 Digoxin 22.5 25.1 21.2 0.30
Coadministration of diuretics (%)a
 Furosemide + spironolactone 16.5 23 13.1 0.003*
 Furosemide + hydrochlorothiazide 6.2 7.7 5.8 0.39
 Furosemide + hydrochlorothiazide + spironolactone 1.9 2.2 1.8 0.78
  1. Hyponatremia: serum sodium < 136 mmol/L, LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction, AMI: acute myocardial infarction, ARB Angiotensin II receptor I blocker, ACEI Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor
  2. p values refer to the t-test or χ2 test as appropriate
  3. *Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05)
  4. aThere were no patients with hydrochlorothiazide + spironolactone combination