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Fig. 4 | BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology

Fig. 4

From: Improved effect of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human retinal pigment epithelium cells

Fig. 4

TPP-Niacin attenuated H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) losses and mitochondrial morphologies of ARPE-19 cells. After pretreatment with 25 and 50 μM TPP-Niacin for 2 h, ARPE-19 cells were incubated with or without 300 μM H2O2 for another 24 h. Quantification of red/green fluorescence intensities was determined by the JC-10 assay (a) and Ψm was determined by TMRE staining. b CCCP (40 μM) and NAC (4 mM) were used as the positive and antioxidant controls, respectively. c Representative electron microscope images of the mitochondrial shape in the ARPE-19 cells treated without H2O2, with 300 μM H2O2 alone or with 300 μM H2O2 and 25 or 50 μM TPP-Niacin for 24 h. ## P < 0.01 versus control group and *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus the H2O2-treated group were considered statistically significantly different. Scale bar represents 50 μm. TMRE: tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine, NAC: N-acetyl-cysteine

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