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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients hospitalized for COVID-19 included in the study (n = 253)

From: Impact of previous exposure to systemic corticosteroids on unfavorable outcome in patients hospitalized for COVID-19

  Total
(n = 253)
Exposure to corticosteroids Admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, or death during the first 14 days
No
(n = 236)
Yes
(n = 17)
No
(n = 133)
Yes
(n = 120)
Age (years)
 Median (IQR) 65 (54–76) 64 (54–76) 73 (62–82) 62 (50–75) 68 (58–78)
  ≥ 65 years, n (%) 128 (50.6) 117 (49.6) 11 (64.7) 59 (44.4) 69 (57.5)
Sex
 Male, n (%) 150 (59.3) 141 (59.7) 9 (52.9) 69 (51.9) 81 (67.5)
 Female, n (%) 103 (40.7) 95 (40.3) 8 (47.1) 64 (48.1) 39 (32.5)
Comorbidities
  ≥ 1 comorbidity, n (%) 218 (86.2) 201 (85.2) 17 (100) 111 (83.5) 107 (89.2)
 Overweight, (BMI: 25–30 kg/m2), n (%) 85 (36.2) 79 (35.6) 6 (46.2) 43 (36.1) 42 (36.2)
 Obesity, (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), n (%) 68 (28.9) 65 (29.3) 3 (23.1) 28 (23.5) 40 (34.5)
 Hypertension, n (%) 102 (40.3) 92 (39.0) 10 (58.8) 46 (34.6) 56 (46.7)
 Heart failure, n (%) 10 (4.0) 9 (3.8) 1 (5.9) 5 (3.8) 5 (4.2)
 History of coronary disease, n (%) 24 (9.5) 20 (8.5) 4 (23.5) 9 (6.8) 15 (12.5)
 History of cardiac surgery, n (%) 3 (1.2) 2 (0.9) 1 (5.9) 2 (1.5) 1 (0.8)
 History of cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 16 (6.3) 14 (6.0) 2 (11.8) 8 (6.0) 8 (6.7)
 Diabetes, n (%) 49 (19.4) 43 (18.2) 6 (35.3) 20 (15.0) 29 (24.2)
 Chronic lung disease, n (%) 54 (21.3) 45 (19.7) 9 (52.9) 24 (18.1) 30 (25.0)
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 23 (9.1) 19 (8.1) 4 (23.5) 11 (8.3) 12 (10.0)
 Chronic liver disease, n (%) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 1 (5.9) 0 (0) 2 (1.7)
 Malignancy, n (%) 27 (10.7) 22 (9.3) 5 (29.4) 12 (9.0) 15 (12.5)
 Immunosuppression, n (%) 20 (7.9) 10 (4.2) 10 (58.8) 8 (6.0) 12 (10.0)
Time between first symptoms and hospital admission, median (IQR)a 7 (4–10) 7 (5–10) 4 (2–4) 7 (4–10) 7 (4–9)
At hospital admission
 Oxygen saturation ≤ 92% or need of oxygen therapy, n (%) a 116 (46.2) 110 (46.8) 6 (37.5) 33 (25.0) 83 (69.8)
 C-reactive protein level, > 50 mg/L, n (%) a 129 (51.8) 122 (52.6) 7 (41.2) 53 (39.9) 76 (65.5)
 Platelets count, <  150 × 109/L, n (%) a 63 (25.3) 58 (25.0) 5 (29.4) 20 (15.3) 43 (36.4)
 Lymphocytes, <  1.5 × 109/L, n (%) a 185 (83.0) 173 (83.2) 12 (80.0) 84 (74.3) 101 (91.8)
Chest CT-scan severity score
 Absence or mild, n (%) 44 (17.4) 42 (17.8) 2 (11.8) 27 (20.3) 17 (14.2)
 Moderate, severe, or critical, n (%) 209 (82.6) 194 (82.2) 15 (88.2) 106 (79.7) 103 (85.8)
Exposure to corticosteroids, n (%) 17 (6.7) 17 (100) 7 (5.3) 10 (8.3)
Composite outcome, n (%) 120 (47.4) 110 (46.6) 10 (58.8) 120 (100)
 Admission to ICU, n (%) 109 (43.1) 102 (43.2) 7 (41.2) 109 (90.8)
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 61 (24.1) 58 (24.6) 3 (17.7) 61 (50.8)
 Death, n (%) 19 (7.5) 14 (5.9) 5 (29.4) 19 (15.8)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CT computed tomography, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range
  2. aMissing data: body mass index, n = 18; time between first symptoms and hospital admission, n = 2; oxygen saturation, n = 2; C-reactive protein, n = 2, platelets count, n = 4; lymphocytes, n = 30