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  1. Content type: Research article

    There is evidence that atypical antipsychotics (APs) increase risk of osteoporosis in schizophrenia patients, however the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the molecular mechanisms abou...

    Authors: Peifan Li, Yiming Wang, Xingde Liu, Zhen Zhou, Jun Wang, Haiyan Zhou, Lei Zheng and Lixia Yang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:10

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  2. Content type: Case report

    True hypersensitivity reactions to rifampicin are relatively rare, nonetheless severe manifestations mostly involving a single organ have been documented. We report a case of acute multi-organ failure occurrin...

    Authors: Lisa Brockhaus, Yasmin Schmid, Anna C. Rast, Alexandra E. Rätz Bravo, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier and Anne B. Leuppi-Taegtmeyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:9

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Levels of toxic metal exposure in indigenous inhabitants are key bioindicators of the severity of environmental contamination. This study measured the seasonal variation of heavy metals and metallothionein (MT...

    Authors: Ai Yin Sow, Ahmad Ismail, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Mohammad Noor Amal and Kamarul Hambali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:8

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Nausea is more difficult to control than vomiting in chemotherapy. We therefore analyzed the efficacy of a strong supportive treatment with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone against nausea for variou...

    Authors: Naohisa Yoshida, Tetsuya Taguchi, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Ken Inoue, Tetsuya Okayama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Eigo Otsuji, Koichi Takayama, Haruo Kuroboshi, Motohiro Kanazawa and Yoshito Itoh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:6

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  5. Content type: Research article

    This active, open observational study aimed to investigate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with six commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in southern Chinese outpatients with epilepsy from 2003 to ...

    Authors: Yanru Du, Jiahe Lin, Jingzan Shen, Siqi Ding, Mengqian Ye, Li Wang, Yi Wang, Xinshi Wang, Niange Xia, Rongyuan Zheng, Hong Chen and Huiqin Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:7

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Fibrosis is a response to chronic liver disease that results in excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and formation of scar tissue. Fibrosis represents a clinical challenge of worldwide signi...

    Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

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  7. Content type: Technical advance

    Methotrexate is an important component in many chemotherapy protocols. The blood concentration of Methotrexate is used to determine the regimen of folinic acid. However, the lower limit of Siemens assay kit is...

    Authors: Xiaoping Shi, Hui Gao, Zhong Li, Jinghua Li, Yang Liu, Lujuan Li and Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:3

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  8. Content type: Software

    The efficiency of drug development defined as a number of successfully launched new pharmaceuticals normalized by financial investments has significantly declined. Nonetheless, recent advances in high-throughp...

    Authors: Limeng Pu, Misagh Naderi, Tairan Liu, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Supratik Mukhopadhyay and Michal Brylinski

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:2

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  9. Content type: Research article

    2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. It is currently being developed for use as a nut...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, John A. Rathmacher, John C. Fuller Jr, J. Scott Daniels, Ryan D. Morrison, Wendall S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Patricia M. Currey, L. Jackson Roberts, John A. Oates and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:1

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is used to treat and prevent several dysrhythmias. This includes ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, wide complex tachycardia, as well as atrial fibrillation (A...

    Authors: Egle Karinauske, Silvijus Abramavicius, Greta Musteikiene, Edgaras Stankevicius, Jurgita Zaveckiene, Vidas Pilvinis and Edmundas Kadusevicius

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:88

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Fluoroquinolones are among the most frequently utilized antibacterial agents in developing countries like Ethiopia. Ciprofloxacin has become the most prescribed drug within this class and remains as one of the...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tewodros Tesfa, Zerihun Ataro, Dadi Marami, Habtamu Mitiku, Birhanu Motbaynor and Zelalem Teklemariam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:86

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Aging population, is a reality in many countries because of improvement in the health care, patient safety and other supplemental factors. Pharmacotherapy in this population must be evaluated due to their high...

    Authors: Faisal Shakeel, Muhammad Aamir, Ahmad Farooq Khan, Tayyiba Nader Khan and Samiullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:85

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  13. Content type: Research article

    There is little information on the frequency of drug incompatibilities in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and the agents most commonly involved in them. The objective of the study was to characterize pote...

    Authors: Ramon Weyler Leopoldino, Haline Tereza Costa, Tatiana Xavier Costa, Rand Randall Martins and António Gouveia Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:83

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  14. Content type: Case report

    The use of isavuconazole is approved for the management of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis, only in adults, as no paediatric pharmacology studies have been reported to date. Very few paediatric cases h...

    Authors: Marjorie Cornu, Bénédicte Bruno, Séverine Loridant, Pauline Navarin, Nadine François, Fanny Lanternier, Elisa Amzallag-Bellenger, François Dubos, Françoise Mazingue and Boualem Sendid

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:81

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease in which the body is unable to produce insulin or respond to insulin production, consequently leading to abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins causi...

    Authors: Ademola O. Ayeleso, Jitcy S. Joseph, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju and Emmanuel Mukwevho

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:84

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant; its pharmacological profile indicates a low risk for dopaminergic adverse effects. To date, there has been only a single case report of ...

    Authors: Yuji Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Maki Yamada, Naoko Satake, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Mitsutoshi Okazaki and Kazuyuki Nakagome

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:82

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) developed as anti-cancer drugs, also have anti-viral activity due to their ability to disrupt productive replication and dissemination in infected cells. Consequently,...

    Authors: Hari Krishna Ananthula, Scott Parker, Erin Touchette, R. Mark Buller, Gopi Patel, Daniel Kalman, Johanna S. Salzer, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Victoria Olson, Inger K. Damon, Tessa Moir-Savitz, Larry Sallans, Milton H. Werner, Catherine M. Sherwin and Pankaj B. Desai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:80

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index. Even minor overdoses must be treated in-hospital due to the risk of severe hypotension and bradycardia. We aimed to d...

    Authors: Mikkel B. Christensen, Kasper M. Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Salam Al-Gibouri, Espen Jimenez-Solem, Kim P. Dalhoff, Tonny S. Petersen and Jon T. Andersen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:78

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Pazopanib is indicated in the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). The aim of this study was to review the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib and see how these aspects ...

    Authors: María José Méndez-Vidal, Áurea Molina, Urbano Anido, Isabel Chirivella, Olatz Etxaniz, Eva Fernández-Parra, Marta Guix, Carolina Hernández, Julio Lambea, Álvaro Montesa, Álvaro Pinto, Silverio Ros and Enrique Gallardo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:77

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  20. Content type: Case report

    Severe systemic reactions resembling septic shock have been described following trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) administration. Nearly all cases described in the literature occurred in HIV-infected pat...

    Authors: Patricia Liu, Gregory P. Ranches and Jeffrey A. Gold

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:76

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Diffuse alveolar bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition that can be induced by several drugs. Whereas fatal cases have been reported in patients treated for other indications, no report have so f...

    Authors: Aija Zuleron Myro, Gisle Bjerke, Svetozar Zarnovicky and Trygve Holmøy

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:75

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Oxidative stress is one potential mechanism that explain the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling process. However, no study has compared different myocardial products of macromolecule oxidation aft...

    Authors: Maria Angélica Martins Lourenço, Mariana Gobbo Braz, Aline Garcia Aun, Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Elisa Moya Kazmarek, Tatiana Fernanda Bachiega, Silmeia Garcia Zanati, Paula Schmidt Azevedo, Bertha Furlan Polegato, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva, Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff and Marcos Ferreira Minicucci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:74

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Ethnicity variation is one of the main factors that may affect drug response in clinical practice. As MTHFR gene affects different transcriptome and proteome which affect the clinical response of drugs. Purpos...

    Authors: Shakir Ullah, Niaz Ali, Adnan Khan, Saad Ali, Haleema Rehna Nazish and Zia Uddin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:73

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Acute cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning, including organophosphate and carbamate poisoning, is a crucial problem in developing countries. Acute intoxication results in a cholinergic crisis, neurological ...

    Authors: Min-Chun Chuang, Chih-Hao Chang, Chung Shu Lee, Shih-Hong Li, Ching-Chung Hsiao, Yueh-Fu Fang and Meng-Jer Hsieh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:72

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  25. Content type: Research article

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a relatively common condition that increases blood pressure in the arteries abnormally, causing problems such as heart disease and stroke. Blood pressure is a force that i...

    Authors: Amir Kazemi Korayem, Shahriar Ghamami and Zahra Bahrami

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:70

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  26. Content type: Research article

    3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been extensively studied as a potential therapeutic drug with free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects. However, whether DIM has similar effects on cardi...

    Authors: Qiang Luo, Ankang Yang, Quan Cao and Hongjing Guan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:71

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Colchicine is a natural alkaloid that is mainly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Effective and toxic doses are very similar, but case reports of higher colchicine doses inducing acute toxicosis...

    Authors: Hongzhen Zhong, Zhiqing Zhong, Hongyan Li, Tianbiao Zhou and Weiji Xie

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:69

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The misconception about dietary supplements being safe has led many into the in-patient wards. Cellgevity® (CGV) is a Max International premiere antioxidant supplement formula used by a large population. This ...

    Authors: O. Awodele, W. A. Badru, A. A. Busari, O. E. Kale, T. B. Ajayi, R. O. Udeh and P. M. Emeka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:68

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Drug induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare complication and often underdiagnosed. DIIHA is frequently associated with a bad outcome, including organ failure and even death. For the last decades, ce...

    Authors: Hans Benno Leicht, Elke Weinig, Beate Mayer, Johannes Viebahn, Andreas Geier and Monika Rau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:67

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Children are subject to varying drug pharmacokinetics which influence plasma drug levels, and hence treatment outcomes especially for drugs like efavirenz whose plasma concentrations are directly related to tr...

    Authors: Selemani Saidi Sungi, Eliford Ngaimisi, Nzovu Ulenga, Philip Sasi and Sabina Mugusi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:66

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Nanoparticles are widely utilized in many products such as cosmetics and sunscreens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (HSP) on nano zinc oxide particles (nZnO) induced oxid...

    Authors: Sabah Ansar, Manal Abudawood, Amal S. A. Alaraj and Sherifa S. Hamed

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:65

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  32. Content type: Research article

    An increasing number of studies are investigating the effects of Chinese medicine on hepatic fibrosis, but only few studies have examined the anti-fibrogenic properties of Artesunate (ART). The aim of the pres...

    Authors: Jian Lv, Ruidan Bai, Li Wang, Jiefang Gao and Hong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:64

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few public...

    Authors: Aleksandra Świderska, Marek Wiśniewski, Marek Wiergowski, Anna Krakowiak and Jacek Sein Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:62

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Generic drugs may help to support antiretroviral treatment. We want to assess the efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of the change of coformulated (abacavir + lamivudine + dolutegravir) to (abacavir + lamivudine)...

    Authors: Julián Olalla, Javier Pérez-Stachowski, Begoña Tortajada, Alfonso Del Arco, Efrén Márquez, Javier De la Torre, Miriam Nieto, José María García de Lomas, José Luis Prada and Javier García-Alegría

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:63

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Valproic acid (VPA) and warfarin are commonly prescribed for patients with epilepsy and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). When VPA and warfarin are prescribed together, clinically important interactions ma...

    Authors: Chenguang Zhou, Yi Sui, Weijin Zhao, Chunyao Dong, Li Ren, Pingmei Song, Bing Xu and Xiaohong Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:60

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Quercetin (QT) as a bioactive flavonoid has a potential therapeutic activity for numerous neuronal injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low absorption rate of QT, especially through the blood-...

    Authors: Rezvan Enteshari Najafabadi, Nasrin Kazemipour, Abolghasem Esmaeili, Siamak Beheshti and Saeed Nazifi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:59

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Efficacy trials showed that glucagon-like peptide–1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists reduced metabolic risk factors in addition to glucose lowering, but the cardiovascular and microvascular efficacy of this drug clas...

    Authors: Xiaowen Zhang, Fei Shao, Lin Zhu, Yuyang Ze, Dalong Zhu and Yan Bi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:58

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Self-medication is the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders and/or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for recurrent disease or symptoms. This phenomenon is alarmingly...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:56

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Recently, several newer antiplatelet treatment strategies have been used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Apart from the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel, d...

    Authors: Xiaojun Zhuo, Bi Zhuo, Shenyu Ouyang, Pei Niu and Mou Xiao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:54

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. Astragaloside IV is one of the major compounds of Astragalus membrana...

    Authors: Chunlan Ji, Yueming Luo, Chuan Zou, Lihua Huang, Ruimin Tian and Zhaoyu Lu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:53

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

    Authors: Monica Danial, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Loke Meng Ong and Amer Hayat Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:52

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  42. Content type: Research article

    L-asparaginase is a potential therapeutic enzyme widely used in the chemotherapy protocols of pediatric and adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, its use has been limited by a high rate of...

    Authors: Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar, Sahar F. Deraz, Sara M. El-Ewasy and Ghada M. Suddek

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:51

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a practical and effective way of delivering antimicrobial therapy, but may be associated with significant risk for hospital readmission. This study aimed t...

    Authors: Victoria Huang, Jorg J. Ruhe, Polina Lerner and Marianna Fedorenko

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:50

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate, in different genders, motor responses in surgical colonic specimens from patients with rectal cancer undergoing and not undergoing chemotherapy with ca...

    Authors: Maria Antonietta Maselli, Antonia Ignazzi, Francesco Pezzolla, Annunziata Scirocco, Dionigi Lorusso, Fabrizio De Ponti and Carola Severi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:49

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Reviewer acknowledgments