The abundance of galanin mRNA was increased in the paraventricular hypothalamus, the central amygdala and the locus coeruleus (LC), but not in the dorsal raphe of HAB as compared to LAB animals. Conversely, long-term (42 days, p.o.) treatment with either desipramine, paroxetine or tranylcypromine caused a general reduction in galanin mRNA expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) of unselected rats indicating a common response to antidepressant drug treatment while in the paraventricular hypothalamus galanin mRNA was increased by tranylcypromine only. This observed common effect of the antidepressants on galanin mRNA in the LC is in contrast to the finding in the HAB model raising the exciting possibility that altered coerulear galanin mRNA expression may be associated with depression-related behaviour. Indeed, intra-LC galanin caused a pronounced increase in the immobility of LAB rats indicating enhanced depression-like behaviour while a galanin receptor antagonist reduced immobility in HAB rats.