The enteric nervous system contains excitatory and inhibitory neurons which control contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle cells and gastrointestinal (GI) motor activity. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system, which activates the NO-GC/cGMP/PKG signalling pathway and thus relaxation of the smooth musclulature in the GI tract. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) act as pacemaker cells in the GI tract by generating slow waves of depolarisation to induce rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. In addition, our previous work established a surprising role of ICCs in excitatory and inhibitory nitrergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms, which mediate regeneration of intestinal slow-waves and inhibitory nitrergic neurotransmission upon acute damage of the ICC network.