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Table 1 Activity of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (MPG), vitamin C (Vit-C), grape seed proanthocyanidin (GP), B. monnieri n-butanolic fraction (BM-ButFr) and their combination against cisplatin induced vomiting during a 24 h observation period

From: Synthetic and natural antioxidants attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting

Treatment Dose and route Pigeons tested/vomited Bouts Latency (min) Retching Wt. loss (%)
Cisplatin 7.0 mg/kg i.v. 8/8 50 ± 3.2 70.0 ± 2.30 561 ± 56.4 16 ± 1.8
Metoclopramide 30 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 8 ± 0.8*** 417 ± 7.00*** 134 ± 12.5*** 4 ± 0.6***
MPG 10 mg/kg i.m. 8/6 12 ± 5.8*** 410 ± 162* 135 + 55.6*** 4 ± 1.9**
20 mg/kg i.m. 8/7 21 ± 4.9** 91.0 ± 11.5 226 + 80.9* 7 ± 1.2*
30 mg/kg i.m. 8/7 23 ± 5.6** 89.0 ± 21.1 329 + 79.2 7 ± 3.2*
Vit-C 100 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 30 ± 3.2** 146 ± 16.7 384 ± 23.5* 7 ± 1.3***
200 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 24 ± 4.6*** 316 ± 96.2* 332 ± 52.4** 5 ± 1.1***
300 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 24 ± 3.0*** 359 ± 73.2* 256 ± 21.0*** 3 ± 0.5***
GP 50 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 14 ± 3.5*** 348 ± 42.5*** 236 ± 78.9** 6 ± 0.8***
100 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 12 ± 2.2*** 370 ± 31.6*** 184 ± 37.0*** 6 ± 1.0***
150 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 9.0 ± 0.9*** 369 ± 27.8*** 139 ± 27.2*** 5 ± 0.5***
BM-ButFr 5 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 17 ± 2.6*** 161 ± 25.0 331 ± 74.0 7 ± 0.5**
10 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 15 ± 2.1*** 145 ± 36.0 378 ± 58.0 6 ± 1.4***
20 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 13 ± 1.7*** 137 ± 25.0 253 ± 45.0** 5 ± 1.7***
Combination
 MPG + Vit-C 10 mg/kg + 200 mg/kg i.m. 7/7 12 ± 4.7*** 421 ± 134* 201 ± 68.2*** 3 ± 1.1***
 BM-ButFr + GP 10 mg/kg + 100 mg i.m. 8/8 17 ± 0.9*** 195 ± 24.1 196 ± 16.3*** 5 ± 0.2***
 GP + Vit-C 100 mg/kg + 200 mg/kg i.m. 8/8 9.0 ± 3.3*** 309 ± 90.6 166 ± 61.3*** 3 ± 0.9***
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 compared to cisplatin control (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc analysis)