Real-time PCR assessment of chemokines in renal tissue. The graphs indicate the mRNA expression of MCP-1 (a) and CCL-5 (b). Each result was normalized to GAPDH as an endogeneous control. The results are ratios (mean values ± s.e.m.s) of levels in the CsA nephropathy and DHMEQ groups to those in the control group, with average values in the control group set as 1.0. The circular, rectangular, and triangular dots represent the data in the control, CsA, and CsA + DHMEQ groups, respectively. The bars represent the mean values ± s.e.m.s.