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  1. Content type: Research article

    Traditional toxicological studies have relied heavily on various animal models to understand the effect of various compounds in a biological context. Considering the great cost, complexity and time involved in...

    Authors: Shan Gao, Weiyang Chen, Yingxin Zeng, Haiming Jing, Nan Zhang, Matthew Flavel, Markandeya Jois, Jing-Dong J. Han, Bo Xian and Guojun Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:18

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing ...

    Authors: James Henry Obol, Peter Akera, Pamela Ochola Atim, Sylvia Awor, Ronald Wanyama, Kenneth Luryama Moi, Bongomin Bodo, Patrick Olwedo Odong, Emmanuel Otto Omony, Hussein Oria, David Musoke and Felix Kaducu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:17

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  3. Content type: Research article

    To describe frequency, preventability and seriousness of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children as cause of emergency department (ED) admission and to evaluate the association between specific factors and t...

    Authors: Niccolò Lombardi, Giada Crescioli, Alessandra Bettiol, Ettore Marconi, Antonio Vitiello, Roberto Bonaiuti, Anna Maria Calvani, Stefano Masi, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Alessandro Mugelli, Lisa Giovannelli and Alfredo Vannacci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:16

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Self-medication practice (SMP) is the use of medication without the prescription of health care professionals. The major problems associated with self-medication practice have been drug resistance, drug side e...

    Authors: Aster Desalew Kassie, Berhanu Boru Bifftu and Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:15

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The efficacy of tacrolimus (TAC) is variable in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS), which might be related to genetic variation among patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effects of CYP3 A4, CY...

    Authors: Min Li, Min Xu, Wei Liu and Xin Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:14

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease with no effective treatment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical stage during the development of fibrosis. To assess...

    Authors: Sun Young Kyung, Dae Young Kim, Jin Young Yoon, Eun Suk Son, Yu Jin Kim, Jeong Woong Park and Sung Hwan Jeong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:13

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  7. Content type: Research article

    A recent in vitro pilot investigation reported Rituximab significantly reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in healthy donors. Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilita...

    Authors: Natalie Eaton, Hélène Cabanas, Cassandra Balinas, Anne Klein, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:12

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  8. Content type: Research article

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the role of methylation in the regulation of microRNA (miR)-122, miR-125b and miR-106b gene expression and the expression of their target genes during isoniazid (INH)-induc...

    Authors: Yuhong Li, Qi Ren, Lingyan Zhu, Yingshu Li, Jinfeng Li, Yiyang Zhang, Guoying Zheng, Tiesheng Han, Shufeng Sun and Fumin Feng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:11

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Accumulation of toxic free cholesterol in hepatocytes may cause hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Volixibat inhibits bile acid reuptake via the apical sodium bile acid transporter located on the luminal surfa...

    Authors: Melissa Palmer, Lee Jennings, Debra G. Silberg, Caleb Bliss and Patrick Martin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:10

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Based on accumulating evidence, the regulation of protein expression by antipsychotic drugs (APDs) might be closely related to the control of psychotic symptoms when these drugs are used to treat mental disord...

    Authors: Tinchou Li, Mingcheng Lee, Fuming Tsai, Yunhsiang Chen, Yiyin Lin and Maoliang Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:9

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Based on in vitro and in vivo rat experiments, the newly developed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator, K203, appears to be much more effective in the treatment of tabun poisonings than currently fielded o...

    Authors: Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Daniel Jun, Jana Zdarova-Karasova, Eugenie Nepovimova, Ondrej Soukup, Martina Hrabinova, John Mikler, Tanos C. C. Franca, Elaine F. F. Da Cunha, Alexandre A. De Castro, Martin Valis and Teodorico C. Ramalho

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:8

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Tomatidine (TO) is a plant steroidal alkaloid that possesses an antibacterial activity against the small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus. We report here the spectrum of activity of TO against othe...

    Authors: Isabelle Guay, Simon Boulanger, Charles Isabelle, Eric Brouillette, Félix Chagnon, Kamal Bouarab, Eric Marsault and François Malouin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:7

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Clonidine is an imidazoline sympatholytic, acting on both α2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the brainstem to induce antihypertensive and negative chronotropic effects in the vasculature and heart respect...

    Authors: Alexander J. Sandweiss, Christopher M. Morrison, Anne Spichler and John Rozich

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:6

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite that sophisticated techniques of radiotherapy and radiation combined with chemotherapy were applied to the patients, some tumor...

    Authors: I-Yun Lee, Yin-Yin Lin, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yu-Shin Lin, Chun-Liang Lin, Wei-Yu Lin, Yu-Ching Cheng, Li-Hsin Shu and Ching-Yuan Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:5

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Oral administration of drugs is convenient and shows good compliance but it can be affected by many factors in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Consumption of food is one of the major factors affecting the GI...

    Authors: Hyun-moon Back, Byungjeong Song, Sudeep Pradhan, Jung-woo Chae, Nayoung Han, Wonku Kang, Min Jung Chang, Jiao Zheng, Kwang-il Kwon, Mats O. Karlsson and Hwi-yeol Yun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:4

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used in the treatment of many types of cancers but its cardiotoxicity is limiting its clinical use. Beyond its anticoagulant action, enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight hepar...

    Authors: Reem Ali Shaker, Samer Hassan Abboud, Hayder Chasib Assad and Najah Hadi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:3

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  17. Content type: Research article

    In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe ma...

    Authors: Nana Tsiklauri, Natia Pirkulashvili, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Elene Abzianidze and Merab G. Tsagareli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:2

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Several countries have used pegylation technology to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of essential drugs. Recently, a novel interferon alfa-2b protein conjugated to four-branched 12 kDa polyethylene glyc...

    Authors: Marisa Boff Costa, Paulo Dornelles Picon, Guilherme Becker Sander, Hugo Nodarse Cuni, Carmen Valenzuela Silva, Rolando Páez Meireles, Ana Carolina Magalhães Andrade Góes, Nadia Maria Batoreu, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Elizabeth Maciel Albuquerque, Denise Cristina de Souza Matos and Pedro Lopez Saura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:1

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  19. Content type: Research article

    This study aims at characterizing the in vitro metabolism of cryptolepine using human and rat hepatocytes, identifying metabolites in rat plasma and urine after a single cryptolepine dose, and evaluating the s...

    Authors: Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, David Pearson, Werner Gertsch, Amanda Cirello, Adam Amaral, Jaimie Spear, Colin W. Wright and Caroline Rynn

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:84

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  20. Content type: Research article

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain where it regulates activity of neuronal networks. The receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the hippocampu...

    Authors: Omar Babateen, Sergiy V. Korol, Zhe Jin, Amol K. Bhandage, Aikeremu Ahemaiti and Bryndis Birnir

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:83

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, afatinib has been shown to have better efficacy in the treatment of ...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Yang, Ming-Ju Tsai, Jen-Yu Hung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Ming Tsai, Yu-Chen Tsai, Jui-Feng Hsu, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Shyan Huang and Inn-Wen Chong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:82

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  22. Content type: Case report

    Inquiries relating to ibuprofen overdose have more than tripled in the last ten years in our poison control center. Although the vast majority of cases have a benign clinical course, there are few severe or ev...

    Authors: Stefanie Geith, Bertold Renner, Christian Rabe, Jochen Stenzel and Florian Eyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:81

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Prasugrel and Ticagrelor are emerging antiplatelet drugs that might have the potential to replace currently used antiplatelet agents. Previous analyses comparing prasugrel with ticagrelor mainly focused on an ...

    Authors: Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Jia-Xin Shi and Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:80

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety.

    Authors: Alan O. Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal and Selene G. Huerta-Olvera

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:79

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale.

    Authors: Muhammad M. Hammami, Sophia J. S. De Padua, Rajaa Hussein, Eman Al Gaai, Nesrine A. Khodr, Reem Al-Swayeh, Syed N. Alvi and Nada Binhashim

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:78

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the most aggressive cancer diseases affecting the human body. Recent research has shown the importance of the perioperative phase in disease progression. Particularly d...

    Authors: Manuela Malsy, Bernhard Graf and Anika Bundscherer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:77

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Many elderly patients receive psychotropic drugs. Treatment with psychotropic agents is associated with serious side effects including an increased risk of falls and fractures. Several psychotropic drugs are c...

    Authors: Inken Arnold, Kati Straube, Wolfgang Himmel, Stephanie Heinemann, Vivien Weiss, Laura Heyden, Eva Hummers-Pradier and Roland Nau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:76

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Cancer patients may receive a high number of medications with the potential to prolong QT interval and subsequent TdP (torsades de pointes). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, ...

    Authors: Qasim Khan, Mohammad Ismail and Sehrash Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:75

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Several studies have reported that daptomycin induced artificial prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) in some test reagents, particularly in warfarin users. However, it remains unknown whether the artificial ...

    Authors: Hideki Hashimoto, Makoto Saito, Naoki Kanda, Takehito Yamamoto, Makiko Mieno and Shuji Hatakeyama

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:74

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharma...

    Authors: Xueqing Li, Rutao Wang, Yang Liu, Yun Liu, Heng Zheng, Yabo Feng, Na Zhao, Hongbin Geng, Wanzhi Zhang and Aidong Wen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:73

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylli...

    Authors: Ram Manohar Basnet, Daniela Zizioli, Michela Guarienti, Dario Finazzi and Maurizio Memo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:72

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Although there are systems for reporting adverse drug reactions (ADR), these safety events remain under reported. The low-cost, low-tech trigger tool method is based on the detection of events through clues, and ...

    Authors: Silvana Maria de Almeida, Aruana Romualdo, Andressa de Abreu Ferraresi, Giovana Roberta Zelezoglo, Alexandre R. Marra and Michael B. Edmond

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:71

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  33. Content type: Study protocol

    It is well known that the standard doses of a given drug may not have equivalent effects in all patients. To date, the management of depression remains mainly empirical and often poorly evaluated. The developm...

    Authors: Célia Lloret-Linares, Youssef Daali, Sylvie Chevret, Isabelle Nieto, Fanny Molière, Philippe Courtet, Florence Galtier, Raphaëlle-Marie Richieri, Sophie Morange, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Wissam El-Hage, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Haesebaert, Philippe Vignaud, Jerôme Holtzmann, Jean-Luc Cracowski…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:70

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Prescription practices, especially in South Asian countries, have come under investigation for quality. Although there have been no studies in Nepal that have analyzed the prescription pattern of FDCs for diff...

    Authors: Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra and Subish Palaian

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:69

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Older people have a greater disease burden and are more likely than younger to be prescribed medications. They are also more sensitive to adverse effects. With this in mind, a range of medications have been su...

    Authors: Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström and Patrik Midlöv

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:68

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Hyperglycemia-induced advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) production play major roles in progression of diabetic nephropathy. Anti-RAGE effect of peroxisome proliferator-activat...

    Authors: Jui-Ting Chang, Yao-Jen Liang, Chia-Yu Hsu, Chao-Yi Chen, Po-Jung Chen, Yi-Feng Yang, Yen-Lin Chen, Dee Pei, Jin-Biou Chang and Jyh-Gang Leu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:67

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Vildagliptin and pioglitazone/rosiglitazone are emerging Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) which are used to treat patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). In this analysis, we aimed to systemati...

    Authors: Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Girish Janoo, Abhishek Rishikesh Teeluck and Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:66

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The presentation of schizophrenia (SCH) symptoms differs between the sexes. Long-term treatment with antipsychotics is frequently associated with decreased bone mineral density, increased fracture risk and met...

    Authors: Tatjana Nikolić, Milan Petronijević, Jelena Sopta, Milica Velimirović, Tihomir Stojković, Gordana Jevtić Dožudić, Milan Aksić, Nevena V. Radonjić and Nataša Petronijević

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:65

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  39. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    Authors: G. Todd Milne, Peter Sandner, Kathleen A. Lincoln, Paul C. Harrison, Hongxing Chen, Hong Wang, Holly Clifford, Hu Sheng Qian, Diane Wong, Chris Sarko, Ryan Fryer, Jeremy Richman, Glenn A. Reinhart, Carine M. Boustany, Steven S. Pullen, Henriette Andresen…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18(Suppl 1):64

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  40. Content type: Research article

    Our previous studies demonstrated that growth and migration of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children, are stimulated by 17β-estradiol. The growth stimulating effects of estrog...

    Authors: Scott M. Belcher, Caleb C. Burton, Clifford J. Cookman, Michelle Kirby, Gabriel L. Miranda, Fatima O. Saeed and Kathleen E. Wray

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:63

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists, exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and inhibit endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, which is an...

    Authors: Yun Hyi Ku, Bong-Jun Cho, Min Joo Kim, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Hak C. Jang and Sung Hee Choi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:62

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Taurolidine has been used for peritonitis, oncological and catheter-lock treatment because of its anti-inflammatory properties. It has been suggested that taurolidine has no severe side-effects, but after long...

    Authors: René Fahrner, Anika Möller, Adrian T. Press, Andreas Kortgen, Michael Kiehntopf, Falk Rauchfuss, Utz Settmacher and Alexander S. Mosig

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:61

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Intracellular Ca2+ overload induced by extracellular Ca2+ entry has previously been confirmed to be an important mechanism for the cardiotoxicity as well as the acute heart dysfunction induced by jellyfish venom,...

    Authors: Qianqian Wang, Hui Zhang, Bo Wang, Chao Wang, Liang Xiao and Liming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:60

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Polypharmacy is a reality in long-term care facilities. However, number of medications used by the patient should not be the only predictor of a complex pharmacotherapy. Although the level of complexity of pha...

    Authors: Vanessa Alves-Conceição, Daniel Tenório da Silva, Vanessa Lima de Santana, Edileide Guimarães dos Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante Santos and Divaldo Pereira de Lyra Jr.

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:59

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  45. Content type: Research article

    With the re-popularity of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing in recent years, the cobalt toxicity has been a cause for concern in the total hip replacement surgery by both physicians and patients.

    Authors: Dahe Li, Wenwen Tong, Denghui Liu, Yuming Zou, Chen Zhang and Weidong Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:58

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has various biological activities including as antioxidant and an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. However, both oxidative stress and activated PI3K/AKT signaling contribute to ...

    Authors: Tianbao Chen, Shaoxiong Deng and Rong Lin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:57

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  47. Content type: Study protocol

    An estimated 2.7 of the 5.9 million deaths in children under 5 years of age occur in the neonatal period. Severe infections contribute to almost a quarter of these deaths. Mortality due to severe infections in...

    Authors: Nitya Wadhwa, Sudha Basnet, Uma Chandra Mouli Natchu, Laxman P. Shrestha, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Halvor Sommerfelt, Tor A. Strand, Siddarth Ramji, K. C. Aggarwal, Harish Chellani, Anuradha Govil, Mamta Jajoo, N. B. Mathur, Meenakshi Bhatt, Anup Mohta, Imran Ansari…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:56

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Mitiglinide is a widely used agent for diabetic treatment. We established a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to illustrate the relationship between mitiglinide plasma concentration and its glucose...

    Authors: Shijia Liu, Peidong Chen, Yang Zhao, Guoliang Dai, Bingting Sun, Yao Wang, Anwei Ding and Wenzheng Ju

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:54

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  49. Content type: Research article

    In order to obtain better clinical results in anticancer therapies, polychemotherapy or combination therapies are used. For this, the combinations are required to increase the efficacy and reduce the adverse r...

    Authors: Mariana de Oliveira Mauro, Renata Matuo, Natan de David, Regiane Lauriano Batista Strapasson, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Maria de Fátima de Cepa Matos, Fábio José Carvalho Faria and Deiler Sampaio Costa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:53

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Reviewer acknowledgments