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  1. Administration of intermittent high doses of vitamin D3 is increasingly used as a strategy for rapid normalization of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. ...

    Authors: Jody van den Ouweland, Hanneke Fleuren, Miranda Drabbe and Hans Vollaard

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:57

    Content type: Case report

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  2. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology was created from the merger of two journals within the BMC series published by BioMed Central: BMC Pharmacology and BMC Clinical Pharmacology. BMC Pharmacology operated anonymous ...

    Authors: Elizabeth C Moylan, Simon Harold, Ciaran O’Neill and Maria K Kowalczuk

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:55

    Content type: Editorial

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  3. Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal...

    Authors: Kyla H Thomas, Richard M Martin, John Potokar, Munir Pirmohamed and David Gunnell

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:54

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The respiratory properties of perfluorocarbons (PFC) have been widely studied for liquid ventilation in humans and animals. Several PFC were tested but their tolerance may depend on the species. Here, the effe...

    Authors: Mourad Chenoune, Ludovic De Rochefort, Patrick Bruneval, Fanny Lidouren, Matthias Kohlhauer, Aurélien Seemann, Bijan Ghaleh, Matthias Korn, Rose-Marie Dubuisson, Anis Ben Yahmed, Xavier Maître, Daniel Isabey, Jean-Damien Ricard, Richard E Kerber, Luc Darrasse, Alain Berdeaux…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:53

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The current healthcare climate demands pharmacoeconomic evaluations for different treatment strategies incorporating drug acquisition costs, costs incurred for hospitalisation, drug administration and preparat...

    Authors: Helmut Ostermann, Carlos Solano, Isidro Jarque, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Xin Gao, Jon Andoni Barrueta, Marina De Salas-Cansado, Jennifer Stephens, Mei Xue, Bertram Weber and Claudie Charbonneau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:52

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Pyrogen detection is of utmost importance in pharmaceutical industry, laboratories and health care institutions. As an alternative to the animal-consuming rabbit pyrogen test or Limulus amoebocyte lysate test,...

    Authors: Christian Wunderlich, Stephan Schumacher and Manfred Kietzmann

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:50

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Lithium intoxication has potentially fatal neurologic and cardiac side effects. Extracorporeal removal can therefore be lifesaving. The dialysance of lithium is high as it is a small molecule. Comparable to it...

    Authors: Julius J Schmidt, Johan Lorenzen, Christos Chatzikyrkou, Ralf Lichtinghagen and Jan T Kielstein

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:49

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Higher versus lower doses of antiviral drugs used to treat herpes zoster infection may lead to more adverse drug events in older adults, particularly those with chronic kidney disease.

    Authors: Ngan N Lam, Jamie L Fleet, Eric McArthur, Peter G Blake and Amit X Garg

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:48

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the pathophysiol...

    Authors: Anne Polk, Kirsten Vistisen, Merete Vaage-Nilsen and Dorte L Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:47

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-Amer...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam and Ian S McRae

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:46

    Content type: Commentary

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  11. This study compared palonosetron and ondansetron as rescue medications for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients who received prophylactic ondansetron. Although guidelines recommend use of an ag...

    Authors: Keith A Candiotti, Syed Raza Ahmed, David Cox and Tong J Gan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:45

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Medicines to treat common colds (CC) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are widely used among children, but there are only few data about treatments actually applied for these diseases. In the prese...

    Authors: Nathalie Eckel, Giselle Sarganas, Ingrid-Katharina Wolf and Hildtraud Knopf

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:44

    Content type: Research article

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  13. 11ß–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11β-HSD1) converts inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids which, in excess, leads to development of the various risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Recen...

    Authors: Tharappel M Anil, Anilkumar Dandu, KrishnaReddy Harsha, Jaideep Singh, Nitya Shree, Venkatesh Satish Kumar, Mudigere N Lakshmi, Venkategowda Sunil, Chandrashekaran Harish, Gundalmandikal V Balamurali, Baisani S Naveen Kumar, Aralakuppe S Gopala, Shivakumar Pratibha, ManojKumar Sadasivuni, Mammen O Anup, Yoganand Moolemath…

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:43

    Content type: Research article

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  14. There are currently no serum biomarkers capable of distinguishing elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that portend serious liver injury potential from benign elevations such as those occurring d...

    Authors: Rohit Singhal, Alison H Harrill, Francoise Menguy-Vacheron, Zaid Jayyosi, Hadj Benzerdjeb and Paul B Watkins

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:42

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The genotoxic effect of cigarette smoke is routinely measured by treating cells with cigarette Particulate Matter (PM) at different dose levels in submerged cell cultures. However, PM exposure cannot be consid...

    Authors: Carolina Garcia-Canton, Graham Errington, Arturo Anadon and Clive Meredith

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:41

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Central disinhibition is a mechanism involved in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia. Melatonin can improve sleep quality, pain and pain threshold. We hypothesized that treatment with melatonin alone or in com...

    Authors: Simone Azevedo de Zanette, Rafael Vercelino, Gabriela Laste, Joanna Ripoll Rozisky, André Schwertner, Caroline Buzzatti Machado, Fernando Xavier, Izabel Cristina Custódio de Souza, Alicia Deitos, Iraci L S Torres and Wolnei Caumo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:40

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransf...

    Authors: Kennon Heard, Jody L Green, Victoria Anderson, Becki Bucher-Bartelson and Richard C Dart

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:39

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The pharmacodynamic (PD) efficacy target of amoxicillin is 40% time above the minimal inhibition concentration (40%T > MIC). Recent studies of other antibiotics have shown that PD-efficacy targets are not alwa...

    Authors: Michiel Haeseker, Thomas Havenith, Leo Stolk, Cees Neef, Cathrien Bruggeman and Annelies Verbon

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:38

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The editors of BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology would like to thank all ourreviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 14 (2013).

    Authors: Helena C Flemyng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:33

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  20. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and PPARδ causes an elevation of tissue carnitine concentrations through induction of genes involved in carnitine uptake [novel organic cation t...

    Authors: Aline Couturier, Robert Ringseis, Erika Most and Klaus Eder

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:37

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Analgesics are among the most commonly consumed drugs by the world populations. Within the broader context of self-medication, pain relief occupies a prominent position. Our study was to ascertain the prevalen...

    Authors: Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Ana López de Andrés, Valentín Hernández Barrera, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, César Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Soledad García-Gómez-Heras and Rodrigo Jiménez-García

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:36

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals ...

    Authors: Maria Grazia Petrillo, Katia Fettucciari, Paolo Montuschi, Simona Ronchetti, Luigi Cari, Graziella Migliorati, Emanuela Mazzon, Oxana Bereshchenko, Stefano Bruscoli, Giuseppe Nocentini and Carlo Riccardi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:35

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Counterfeit and unapproved medicines are inherently dangerous and can cause patient injury due to ineffectiveness, chemical or biological contamination, or wrong dosage. Growth of the counterfeit medical marke...

    Authors: Dieter Pullirsch, Julie Bellemare, Andreas Hackl, Yvon-Louis Trottier, Andreas Mayrhofer, Heidemarie Schindl, Christine Taillon, Christian Gartner, Brigitte Hottowy, Gerhard Beck and Jacques Gagnon

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:34

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Patients on antiretroviral therapy have higher risk of developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The impact of ADRs on treatment adherence, treatment outcomes and future treatment options is quiet considerable...

    Authors: Wondmagegn Tamiru Tadesse, Alemayehu Berhane Mekonnen, Wubshet Hailu Tesfaye and Yidnekachew Tamiru Tadesse

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:32

    Content type: Research article

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  25. A few cases of adverse reactions linked to erroneous use of transdermal opioid patches have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe and characterize medication errors (MEs) assoc...

    Authors: Henrik Lövborg, Mikael Holmlund and Staffan Hägg

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:31

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Althou...

    Authors: Rentian Feng, Christine A Milcarek and Xiang-Qun Xie

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:30

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins suppress G protein coupled receptor signaling by catalyzing the hydrolysis of Gα-bound guanine nucleotide triphosphate. Transgenic mice in which RGS-mediated reg...

    Authors: Sergio Parra, Xinyan Huang, Raelene A Charbeneau, Susan M Wade, Kuljeet Kaur, Boyd R Rorabaugh and Richard R Neubig

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:29

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Chemotherapy with doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. Free radical generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to contribute to doxorubicin-induced cardiac failure. In this study we wanted to in...

    Authors: Lisa Drange Hole, Terje Hjalmar Larsen, Kjell Ove Fossan, Fredrik Limé and Jan Schjøtt

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:28

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Tamoxifen, an agonist of estrogen receptor, is widely prescribed for the prevention and long-term treatment of breast cancer. A side effect of tamoxifen is fatty liver, which increases the risk for non-alcohol...

    Authors: Thuc T Le, Yasuyo Urasaki and Giuseppe Pizzorno

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:27

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem both in hospital and community acquired infections. The present study assessed the knowledge and beliefs on AMR among physicians and nurse...

    Authors: Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret and Wondemagegn Mulu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:26

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Novobiocin is a coumarin antibiotic, which affects also eukaryotic cells inhibiting activity of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). The Hsp90 represents a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activati...

    Authors: Anna K Szkaradkiewicz, Tomasz M Karpiński and Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:25

    Content type: Research article

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  32. HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily c...

    Authors: Vicent P Manyanga, Omary Minzi and Billy Ngasala

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:24

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The “molecular tweezer” CLR01 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of abnormal protein self-assembly, which acts by binding selectively to Lys residues. CLR01 has been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of am...

    Authors: Aida Attar, Wai-Ting Coco Chan, Frank-Gerrit Klärner, Thomas Schrader and Gal Bitan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:23

    Content type: Research article

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  34. It is unclear whether concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the risk of recurrence of cardiovascular disease or death in patients at high risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Rickard Ljung, Jesper Lagergren and Yunxia Lu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:22

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic commonly used in critically ill patients to treat severe infections. The available pharmacokinetic (PK) data has been mostly obtained from healthy volunteers as well as fro...

    Authors: João Goncalves-Pereira, Nuno Elvas Silva, André Mateus, Catarina Pinho and Pedro Povoa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:21

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Changes in antihypertensive drug treatment are paramount in the adequate management of patients with hypertension, still, there is little information regarding changes in antihypertensive drug treatment in Swi...

    Authors: Vanessa Christe, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and Pedro Marques-vidal

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:20

    Content type: Research article

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  37. GPR40 is a G-protein coupled receptor regulating free fatty acid induced and also glucose induced insulin secretion. We generated neonatally-streptozotocin-treated female rats (n-STZ) and treated them with CNX...

    Authors: Venkategowda Sunil, Mahesh Kumar Verma, Anup M Oommen, Manojkumar Sadasivuni, Jaideep Singh, Dasarahalli N Vijayraghav, Bhawna Chandravanshi, Jayalaxmi Shetty, Sanghamitra Biswas, Anilkumar Dandu, Yoganand Moolemath, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Baggavalli P Somesh and Madanahalli R Jagannath

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:19

    Content type: Research article

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  38. This study describes the development of Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design, assesses its performance and effectiveness in estimating LD50, and compares RSP with Up and Down Procedures (UDPs) and Random Walk (R...

    Authors: Sagita Dewi, Tore Aune, John A Aasen Bunæs, Adrian J Smith and Stig Larsen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:18

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Internationally, there is concern about the increased prescribing of pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). In part, this is related to limited knowledge about the long-term benefits and ou...

    Authors: Gabrielle Campbell, Richard Mattick, Raimondo Bruno, Briony Larance, Suzanne Nielsen, Milton Cohen, Nicholas Lintzeris, Fiona Shand, Wayne D Hall, Bianca Hoban, Chyanne Kehler, Michael Farrell and Louisa Degenhardt

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:17

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Macrophages are equipped with several receptors for the recognition of foreign particles and pathogens. Upon binding to these receptors, particles become internalized. An interaction of particles with macropha...

    Authors: Ebru Diler, Marion Schwarz, Ruth Nickels, Michael D Menger, Christoph Beisswenger, Carola Meier and Thomas Tschernig

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:16

    Content type: Research article

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  41. A convergence of technological breakthroughs in the past decade has facilitated the development of rapid screening tools for biomarkers of toxicant exposure and effect. Platforms using the whole adult organism...

    Authors: Naissan Hussainzada, John A Lewis, Christine E Baer, Danielle L Ippolito, David A Jackson and Jonathan D Stallings

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:15

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The human ether-a-go-go related gene 1 (hERG1), which codes for a potassium ion channel, is a key element in the cardiac delayed rectified potassium current, IKr, and plays an important role in the normal repolar...

    Authors: Serdar Durdagi, Trevor Randall, Henry J Duff, Adam Chamberlin and Sergei Y Noskov

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:14

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Access to good-quality medicines in many countries is largely hindered by the rampant circulation of spurious/falsely labeled/falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) and substandard medicines. In 2006, the Ministry of He...

    Authors: Naoko Yoshida, Mohiuddin Hussain Khan, Hitomi Tabata, Eav Dararath, Tey Sovannarith, Heng Bun Kiet, Nam Nivanna, Manabu Akazawa, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto and Kazuko Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:13

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Bone graft substitute such as calcium sulfate are frequently used as carrier material for local antimicrobial therapy in orthopedic surgery. This study aimed to assess the systemic absorption and disposition o...

    Authors: Françoise Livio, Peter Wahl, Chantal Csajka, Emanuel Gautier and Thierry Buclin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:12

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Because of relatively small treatment numbers together with low adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting rates the timely identification of ADRs affecting children and young people is problematic. The primary obj...

    Authors: Angela Peichen Sun, Bradley Kirby, Corri Black, Peter John Helms, Marion Bennie and James Stuart McLay

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:11

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Pain is characterized as a complex experience, dependent not only on the regulation of nociceptive sensory systems, but also on the activation of mechanisms that control emotional processes in limbic brain are...

    Authors: Gulnazi Gurtskaia, Nana Tsiklauri, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze and Merab G Tsagareli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:10

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Filgrastim or methionyl-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Met-G-CSF), is a recombinant therapeutic protein widely used to treat severe neutropenia caused by myelosuppressive drugs in patients with nonmyel...

    Authors: Davide Crobu, Gaia Spinetti, Rodolfo Schrepfer, Giancarlo Tonon, Gloria Saccani Jotti, Pierluigi Onali, Simona Dedoni, Gaetano Orsini and Andrea Di Stefano

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:7

    Content type: Research article

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Reviewer acknowledgments

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