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  1. Self-medication with antibiotics may result in antimicrobial resistance and its high prevalence is of particular concern in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) like Guatemala. A better understanding of self-...

    Authors: Brooke M Ramay, Paola Lambour and Alejandro Cerón
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:11
  2. Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major health problem in Latin America, and there are currently no drugs for the effective treatment of this disease. The energy metabolism of T. cruzi is...

    Authors: Carlos Wong-Baeza, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Manuel Serna, Sergio Meza-Toledo, Isabel Baeza and Carlos Wong
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:10
  3. In vitro and animal experiments have shown that the transport and signaling of β2-adrenergic agonists are pH-sensitive. Inhaled albuterol, a hydrophilic β2-adrenergic agonist, is widely used for the treatment of ...

    Authors: Jose E Cancado, Eliana S Mendes, Johana Arana, Gabor Horvath, Maria E Monzon, Matthias Salathe and Adam Wanner
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:9
  4. The patterns and determinants of saxagliptin use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unknown in real-world settings. We compared the characteristics of T2DM patients who were new initiators...

    Authors: M Elle Saine, Dena M Carbonari, Craig W Newcomb, Melissa S Nezamzadeh, Kevin Haynes, Jason A Roy, Serena Cardillo, Sean Hennessy, Crystal N Holick, Daina B Esposito, Arlene M Gallagher, Harshvinder Bhullar, Brian L Strom and Vincent Lo Re III
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:8
  5. The Swiss label of oral fingolimod (0.5 mg once daily) requires a 6-hour first dose observation (FDO) including an ECG prior to and 6 hours after the first intake but in comparison to other countries such as A...

    Authors: Simon P Ramseier, Serge Roth and Adam Czaplinski
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:7
  6. Irrational antibiotic use is common in rural areas of China, despite the growing recognition of the importance of appropriate prescribing to contain antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze ...

    Authors: Qiang Sun, Oliver J Dyar, Lingbo Zhao, Göran Tomson, Lennart E Nilsson, Malin Grape, Yanyan Song, Ling Yan and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:6
  7. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is one of the most influential factors that affect patient quality of life; thus, preventing this adverse event could lead to better patient outcome. Standard preventiv...

    Authors: Masahiro Inoue, Manabu Shoji, Naomi Shindo, Kazunori Otsuka, Masatomo Miura and Hiroyuki Shibata
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:5
  8. Efavirenz (EFV) therapeutic response and toxicity are associated with high inter-individual variability attributed to variation in its pharmacokinetics. Plasma concentrations below 1 μg/ml may result in virolo...

    Authors: Milcah Dhoro, Simbarashe Zvada, Bernard Ngara, Charles Nhachi, Gerald Kadzirange, Prosper Chonzi and Collen Masimirembwa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:4
  9. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Sudan revised its malaria treatment policy accordingly in 2004. ...

    Authors: Abeer Abuzeid Atta Elmannan, Khalid Abdelmutalab Elmardi, Yassir Ali Idris, Jonathan M Spector, Nahid Abdelgadir Ali and Elfatih Mohamed Malik
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:3
  10. This study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair or metabolism of taxanes or platinum could predict toxicity or response to first-line chemotherapy i...

    Authors: Sandrina Lambrechts, Diether Lambrechts, Evelyn Despierre, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Dominiek Smeets, Philip R Debruyne, Vincent Renard, Philippe Vroman, Daisy Luyten, Patrick Neven, Frédéric Amant, Karin Leunen and Ignace Vergote
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:2
  11. Patients may experience nausea and vomiting when undergoing chemotherapy or surgery requiring anesthesia. Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are effective antiemetics, yet may cause a...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Charlene Soobiah, Wing Hui, Jesmin Antony, Vladi Struchkov, Brian Hutton, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher and Sharon E Straus
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:1
  12. Safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) has been studied more extensively among HIV-infected patients than among HIV-uninfected people. Using data from a pre-exposure trial – FEM-PrEP –...

    Authors: Justin Mandala, Kavita Nanda, Meng Wang, Irith De Baetselier, Jennifer Deese, Johan Lombaard, Fredrick Owino, Mookho Malahleha, Rachel Manongi, Douglas Taylor and Lut Van Damme
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:77
  13. Advanced structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling can be used as an alternative tool for identification of skin sensitizers and in improvement of the medical diagnosis and more effective practical measur...

    Authors: Qin Ouyang, Lirong Wang, Ying Mu and Xiang-Qun Xie
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:76
  14. Triflusal is a drug that inhibits platelet aggregation. In this study we investigated the dose-exposure-response relationship of a triflusal formulation by population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (...

    Authors: Sung Min Park, Joomi Lee, Sook Jin Seong, Jong Gwang Park, Mi-Ri Gwon, Mi-sun Lim, Hae Won Lee, Young-Ran Yoon, Dong Heon Yang, Kwang-Il Kwon and Seunghoon Han
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:75
  15. The prevalence of self -medication with antibiotics is quite high in developing countries as opposed to developed countries. Antibiotics are often taken erroneously for certain ailments, without having the app...

    Authors: Syed Jawad Shah, Hamna Ahmad, Rija Binte Rehan, Sidra Najeeb, Mirrah Mumtaz, Muhammad Hashim Jilani, Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani, Muhammad Zakariya Alam, Saba Farooq and M Masood Kadir
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:74
  16. We have previously shown that the thromboxane (TXA2) receptor agonist, U46619, can directly induce ventricular arrhythmias that were associated with increases in intracellular calcium in cardiomyocytes. Since ...

    Authors: Chad D Touchberry, Neerupma Silswal, Vladimir Tchikrizov, Christopher J Elmore, Shubra Srinivas, Adil S Akthar, Hannah K Swan, Lori A Wetmore and Michael J Wacker
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:73
  17. National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK use a system of coding for patient episodes. The coding system used is the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). There are ICD-10 codes which may b...

    Authors: Jennifer R Bellis, Jamie J Kirkham, Anthony J Nunn and Munir Pirmohamed
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:72
  18. Renal toxicity is a clinical problem that affects 28 − 42% of patients undergoing treatment with cisplatin. Renal toxicity can be minimized by high volume hydration with mannitol diuresis. Recent reports have ...

    Authors: Takako Oka, Tatsuo Kimura, Tomohiro Suzumura, Naoki Yoshimoto, Toshiyuki Nakai, Norio Yamamoto, Kuniomi Matsuura, Shigeki Mitsuoka, Naruo Yoshimura, Shinzoh Kudoh and Kazuto Hirata
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:70
  19. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to lower the activity of the patient’s immune system to prevent organ rejection. Unfortunately, there is limited data regarding the therapeutic equivalency ...

    Authors: Ashraf G Madian, Arun Panigrahi, Minoli A Perera and Navin Pinto
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:69
  20. The mouse has three arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes, (MOUSE)Nat1, (MOUSE)Nat2 and (MOUSE)Nat3. These are believed to correspond to (HUMAN)NAT1, (HUMAN)NAT2 and NATP in humans. (MOUSE)Nat3 encodes an enzyme wi...

    Authors: Nicola Laurieri, Akane Kawamura, Isaac M Westwood, Amy Varney, Elizabeth Morris, Angela J Russell, Lesley A Stanley and Edith Sim
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:68
  21. Lung cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate probably attributable to early metastasis. Oxidative stress is involved in development and progression of lung cancer, through cellular and molecular mecha...

    Authors: Luca Gallelli, Daniela Falcone, Monica Scaramuzzino, Girolamo Pelaia, Bruno D’Agostino, Maria Mesuraca, Rosa Terracciano, Giuseppe Spaziano, Rosario Maselli, Michele Navarra and Rocco Savino
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:67
  22. There is an urgent need for better therapeutics in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) to improve survival and decrease treatment morbidity. Recent advances in high-throughput drug screening techniques ...

    Authors: Anthony C Nichols, Morgan Black, John Yoo, Nicole Pinto, Andrew Fernandes, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Paul C Boutros and John W Barrett
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:66
  23. Polymorphisms of Arylamine N- acetyltransferase (NAT) that contribute to diverse susceptibilities of some autoimmune diseases are also linked to the metabolism of several drugs including sulfasalazine (SSZ). The ...

    Authors: Zhi-duo Hou, Zheng-yu Xiao, Yao Gong, Yu-ping Zhang and Qing Yu Zeng
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:64
  24. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a life-limiting lung disease with considerable impact on patients and carers as the disease progresses. Currently few treatments are available. We aimed to evaluate the c...

    Authors: Emma Loveman, Vicky R Copley, Jill L Colquitt, David A Scott, Andy J Clegg, Jeremy Jones, Katherine MA O’Reilly, Sally Singh, Claudia Bausewein and Athol Wells
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:63
  25. Pharmacokinetic interactions between rifampicin and protease inhibitors (PIs) complicate the management of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Rifabutin is an alternative rifamycin, for patients requiring PIs. Recent...

    Authors: Suhashni Naiker, Cathy Connolly, Lubbe Wiesner, Tracey Kellerman, Tarylee Reddy, Anthony Harries, Helen McIlleron, Christian Lienhardt and Alexander Pym
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:61
  26. Inhaled endotoxin induces airways’neutrophilia, in human. TNF-a being a key cytokine in the response to endotoxin, the effect of anti-TNF on the endotoxin-induced neutrophilic response was evaluated among heal...

    Authors: Olivier Michel, Phong Huy Duc Dinh, Virginie Doyen and Francis Corazza
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:60
  27. Nobiletin is a non-toxic dietary flavonoid that possesses anti-cancer properties. Nobiletin has been reported to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we ...

    Authors: Jianchu Chen, Ashley Creed, Allen Y Chen, Haizhi Huang, Zhaoliang Li, Gary O Rankin, Xingqian Ye, Guihua Xu and Yi Charlie Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:59
  28. Significant interest has emerged in the therapeutic and interactive effects of different cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects with high doses administered...

    Authors: Nadia Solowij, Samantha J Broyd, Hendrika H van Hell and Arno Hazekamp
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:58
  29. Administration of intermittent high doses of vitamin D3 is increasingly used as a strategy for rapid normalization of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. ...

    Authors: Jody van den Ouweland, Hanneke Fleuren, Miranda Drabbe and Hans Vollaard
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:57
  30. Despite recent development of direct acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C, the current standard of care may still include pegylated-interferon, which is associated with frequent and, at times, seriou...

    Authors: Davide Mangioni, Alessandro Soria, Laura Brighina, Alessandra Bandera, Carlo Ferrarese and Andrea Gori
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:56
  31. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology was created from the merger of two journals within the BMC series published by BioMed Central: BMC Pharmacology and BMC Clinical Pharmacology. BMC Pharmacology operated anonymous ...

    Authors: Elizabeth C Moylan, Simon Harold, Ciaran O’Neill and Maria K Kowalczuk
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:55
  32. Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal...

    Authors: Kyla H Thomas, Richard M Martin, John Potokar, Munir Pirmohamed and David Gunnell
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:54
  33. The respiratory properties of perfluorocarbons (PFC) have been widely studied for liquid ventilation in humans and animals. Several PFC were tested but their tolerance may depend on the species. Here, the effe...

    Authors: Mourad Chenoune, Ludovic De Rochefort, Patrick Bruneval, Fanny Lidouren, Matthias Kohlhauer, Aurélien Seemann, Bijan Ghaleh, Matthias Korn, Rose-Marie Dubuisson, Anis Ben Yahmed, Xavier Maître, Daniel Isabey, Jean-Damien Ricard, Richard E Kerber, Luc Darrasse, Alain Berdeaux…
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:53
  34. The current healthcare climate demands pharmacoeconomic evaluations for different treatment strategies incorporating drug acquisition costs, costs incurred for hospitalisation, drug administration and preparat...

    Authors: Helmut Ostermann, Carlos Solano, Isidro Jarque, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Xin Gao, Jon Andoni Barrueta, Marina De Salas-Cansado, Jennifer Stephens, Mei Xue, Bertram Weber and Claudie Charbonneau
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:52
  35. Pyrogen detection is of utmost importance in pharmaceutical industry, laboratories and health care institutions. As an alternative to the animal-consuming rabbit pyrogen test or Limulus amoebocyte lysate test,...

    Authors: Christian Wunderlich, Stephan Schumacher and Manfred Kietzmann
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:50
  36. Lithium intoxication has potentially fatal neurologic and cardiac side effects. Extracorporeal removal can therefore be lifesaving. The dialysance of lithium is high as it is a small molecule. Comparable to it...

    Authors: Julius J Schmidt, Johan Lorenzen, Christos Chatzikyrkou, Ralf Lichtinghagen and Jan T Kielstein
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:49
  37. Higher versus lower doses of antiviral drugs used to treat herpes zoster infection may lead to more adverse drug events in older adults, particularly those with chronic kidney disease.

    Authors: Ngan N Lam, Jamie L Fleet, Eric McArthur, Peter G Blake and Amit X Garg
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:48
  38. Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the pathophysiol...

    Authors: Anne Polk, Kirsten Vistisen, Merete Vaage-Nilsen and Dorte L Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:47
  39. In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-Amer...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam and Ian S McRae
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:46
  40. This study compared palonosetron and ondansetron as rescue medications for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients who received prophylactic ondansetron. Although guidelines recommend use of an ag...

    Authors: Keith A Candiotti, Syed Raza Ahmed, David Cox and Tong J Gan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:45
  41. Medicines to treat common colds (CC) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are widely used among children, but there are only few data about treatments actually applied for these diseases. In the prese...

    Authors: Nathalie Eckel, Giselle Sarganas, Ingrid-Katharina Wolf and Hildtraud Knopf
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:44
  42. 11ß–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11β-HSD1) converts inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids which, in excess, leads to development of the various risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Recen...

    Authors: Tharappel M Anil, Anilkumar Dandu, KrishnaReddy Harsha, Jaideep Singh, Nitya Shree, Venkatesh Satish Kumar, Mudigere N Lakshmi, Venkategowda Sunil, Chandrashekaran Harish, Gundalmandikal V Balamurali, Baisani S Naveen Kumar, Aralakuppe S Gopala, Shivakumar Pratibha, ManojKumar Sadasivuni, Mammen O Anup, Yoganand Moolemath…
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:43
  43. There are currently no serum biomarkers capable of distinguishing elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that portend serious liver injury potential from benign elevations such as those occurring d...

    Authors: Rohit Singhal, Alison H Harrill, Francoise Menguy-Vacheron, Zaid Jayyosi, Hadj Benzerdjeb and Paul B Watkins
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:42
  44. The genotoxic effect of cigarette smoke is routinely measured by treating cells with cigarette Particulate Matter (PM) at different dose levels in submerged cell cultures. However, PM exposure cannot be consid...

    Authors: Carolina Garcia-Canton, Graham Errington, Arturo Anadon and Clive Meredith
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:41
  45. Central disinhibition is a mechanism involved in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia. Melatonin can improve sleep quality, pain and pain threshold. We hypothesized that treatment with melatonin alone or in com...

    Authors: Simone Azevedo de Zanette, Rafael Vercelino, Gabriela Laste, Joanna Ripoll Rozisky, André Schwertner, Caroline Buzzatti Machado, Fernando Xavier, Izabel Cristina Custódio de Souza, Alicia Deitos, Iraci L S Torres and Wolnei Caumo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:40
  46. Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransf...

    Authors: Kennon Heard, Jody L Green, Victoria Anderson, Becki Bucher-Bartelson and Richard C Dart
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014 15:39
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