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  1. Content type: Research article

    The misconception about dietary supplements being safe has led many into the in-patient wards. Cellgevity® (CGV) is a Max International premiere antioxidant supplement formula used by a large population. This ...

    Authors: O. Awodele, W. A. Badru, A. A. Busari, O. E. Kale, T. B. Ajayi, R. O. Udeh and P. M. Emeka

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:68

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Drug induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare complication and often underdiagnosed. DIIHA is frequently associated with a bad outcome, including organ failure and even death. For the last decades, ce...

    Authors: Hans Benno Leicht, Elke Weinig, Beate Mayer, Johannes Viebahn, Andreas Geier and Monika Rau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:67

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Children are subject to varying drug pharmacokinetics which influence plasma drug levels, and hence treatment outcomes especially for drugs like efavirenz whose plasma concentrations are directly related to tr...

    Authors: Selemani Saidi Sungi, Eliford Ngaimisi, Nzovu Ulenga, Philip Sasi and Sabina Mugusi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:66

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Nanoparticles are widely utilized in many products such as cosmetics and sunscreens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (HSP) on nano zinc oxide particles (nZnO) induced oxid...

    Authors: Sabah Ansar, Manal Abudawood, Amal S. A. Alaraj and Sherifa S. Hamed

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:65

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  5. Content type: Research article

    An increasing number of studies are investigating the effects of Chinese medicine on hepatic fibrosis, but only few studies have examined the anti-fibrogenic properties of Artesunate (ART). The aim of the pres...

    Authors: Jian Lv, Ruidan Bai, Li Wang, Jiefang Gao and Hong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:64

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Generic drugs may help to support antiretroviral treatment. We want to assess the efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of the change of coformulated (abacavir + lamivudine + dolutegravir) to (abacavir + lamivudine)...

    Authors: Julián Olalla, Javier Pérez-Stachowski, Begoña Tortajada, Alfonso Del Arco, Efrén Márquez, Javier De la Torre, Miriam Nieto, José María García de Lomas, José Luis Prada and Javier García-Alegría

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:63

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few public...

    Authors: Aleksandra Świderska, Marek Wiśniewski, Marek Wiergowski, Anna Krakowiak and Jacek Sein Anand

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:62

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Valproic acid (VPA) and warfarin are commonly prescribed for patients with epilepsy and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). When VPA and warfarin are prescribed together, clinically important interactions ma...

    Authors: Chenguang Zhou, Yi Sui, Weijin Zhao, Chunyao Dong, Li Ren, Pingmei Song, Bing Xu and Xiaohong Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:60

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Quercetin (QT) as a bioactive flavonoid has a potential therapeutic activity for numerous neuronal injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low absorption rate of QT, especially through the blood-...

    Authors: Rezvan Enteshari Najafabadi, Nasrin Kazemipour, Abolghasem Esmaeili, Siamak Beheshti and Saeed Nazifi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:59

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Efficacy trials showed that glucagon-like peptide–1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists reduced metabolic risk factors in addition to glucose lowering, but the cardiovascular and microvascular efficacy of this drug clas...

    Authors: Xiaowen Zhang, Fei Shao, Lin Zhu, Yuyang Ze, Dalong Zhu and Yan Bi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:58

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Self-medication is the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders and/or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for recurrent disease or symptoms. This phenomenon is alarmingly...

    Authors: Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu and Dumessa Edessa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:56

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Recently, several newer antiplatelet treatment strategies have been used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Apart from the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel, d...

    Authors: Xiaojun Zhuo, Bi Zhuo, Shenyu Ouyang, Pei Niu and Mou Xiao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:54

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. Astragaloside IV is one of the major compounds of Astragalus membrana...

    Authors: Chunlan Ji, Yueming Luo, Chuan Zou, Lihua Huang, Ruimin Tian and Zhaoyu Lu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:53

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

    Authors: Monica Danial, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Loke Meng Ong and Amer Hayat Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:52

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  15. Content type: Research article

    L-asparaginase is a potential therapeutic enzyme widely used in the chemotherapy protocols of pediatric and adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, its use has been limited by a high rate of...

    Authors: Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar, Sahar F. Deraz, Sara M. El-Ewasy and Ghada M. Suddek

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:51

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a practical and effective way of delivering antimicrobial therapy, but may be associated with significant risk for hospital readmission. This study aimed t...

    Authors: Victoria Huang, Jorg J. Ruhe, Polina Lerner and Marianna Fedorenko

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:50

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate, in different genders, motor responses in surgical colonic specimens from patients with rectal cancer undergoing and not undergoing chemotherapy with ca...

    Authors: Maria Antonietta Maselli, Antonia Ignazzi, Francesco Pezzolla, Annunziata Scirocco, Dionigi Lorusso, Fabrizio De Ponti and Carola Severi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:49

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  18. Content type: Research article

    It is an established fact that humans and animals are exposed to more than one chemical concurrently from various sources such as food, air and water. In the past, much emphasis was laid on evaluating the toxi...

    Authors: Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina and Shilpa Sood

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:48

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Guidelines recommending vancomycin trough concentrations > 10 mg/L in non-deep seated infections are based on expert opinion. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with non-deep seated infection...

    Authors: Michael Wan, Sandra A. N. Walker, Elaine Martin, Marion Elligsen, Lesley Palmay and Jerome A. Leis

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:47

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of misuse of antibiotics, a problem that leads to unnecessary adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic prescription in Ecuador was analyzed ...

    Authors: Xavier Sánchez Choez, María Luciana Armijos Acurio and Ruth E. Jimbo Sotomayor

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:46

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) detected in human cord blood and milk. NP exposure in developmental periods results in hyperadrenalism and increasing 11β-hydroxysteroid...

    Authors: Ling-Ling Chang, Wan-Song Alfred Wun and Paulus S. Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:45

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Current studies have demonstrated that DODAC/PHO-S (Dioctadecyldimethylammonium Chloride/Synthetic phosphoethanolamine) liposomes induces cytotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 and B16F10 murine tumor cells, with a higher ...

    Authors: Arthur Cássio de Lima Luna, Greice Kelle Viegas Saraiva, Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice, Henrique Hesse and Durvanei Augusto Maria

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:44

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) can be used as non-viral vectors in gene transfer and drug delivery. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its cytotoxicity has not been well elucidated yet.

    Authors: Ying Li, Xiu-Liang Cui, Qing-Shan Chen, Jing Yu, Hai Zhang, Jie Gao, Du-Xin Sun and Guo-Qing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:43

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Emergence of resistance to artemisinins and some of their combinations in chemotherapy of clinical malaria has intensified the search for novel safe efficacious antimalarial molecules. Fourteen synthetic 1, 4-...

    Authors: Moses N. Ngemenya, Grace Ntube Abwenzoh, Hermia Nalova Ikome, Denis Zofou, Fidele Ntie-Kang and Simon M. N. Efange

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:42

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Polymyxin B (PMB), which is regarded as the ultimate antibacterial treatment against some intractable gram-negative bacteria with its outstanding anti-bacterial activities, inflicts several adverse effects on ...

    Authors: Guanhao Zheng, Li Cao, Zaiqian Che, Enqiang Mao, Erzhen Chen and Juan He

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:41

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Ambroxol relieves cough symptoms based on its secretagogue, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, immunomodulatory and local anesthetic effects. The present study was designed to explore...

    Authors: Peter Kardos, Kai-Michael Beeh, Ulrike Sent, Tobias Mueck, Heidemarie Gräter and Martin C. Michel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:40

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Immunosuppressant drugs for renal transplant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The specific site of GI tract targeted by MMF an...

    Authors: Yichen Jia, Rulin Wang, Long Li, Ying Zhang, Jiawei Li, Jina Wang, Xuanchuan Wang, Guisheng Qi, Ruiming Rong, Ming Xu and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:39

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control by promoting GLP1-mediated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin have been shown to imp...

    Authors: Girish Parthan, Shobhit Bhansali, Anura V. Kurpad, Rama Walia, Kishor Bhat and Anil Bhansali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:38

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Topical administration of PR022, 0.05% hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in gel has been demonstrated to be beneficial in a chronic murine atopic dermatitis model. In a follow up study we tested a higher concentration ...

    Authors: Tomoki Fukuyama, Sarah Ehling, Jenny Wilzopolski and Wolfgang Bäumer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:37

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The possibility of self-medication is higher in health sciences students than other students because of easy access to drug information resources and relatively sufficient familiarity with various kinds of dru...

    Authors: Alireza Abdi, Azam Faraji, Fateme Dehghan and Alireza Khatony

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:36

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The aim of our study was to compare the ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) with atropine to counteract acute sarin-induced brain damage with the efficacy of antidotal tr...

    Authors: Filip Caisberger, Jaroslav Pejchal, Jan Misik, Jiri Kassa, Martin Valis and Kamil Kuca

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:35

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  32. Content type: Research article

    A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability...

    Authors: Anum Saqib, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Sarfraz and Sadia Iftikhar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:34

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies indicate that inflammation may also affect CYP3A4 activity. Associations of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of quinine, with inflammatory biomarkers were investigated in patients undergoing maintenan...

    Authors: Hadi Molanaei, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Olof Heimbürger, Bengt Lindholm, Ulf Diczfalusy, Björn Anderstam, Leif Bertilsson and Peter Stenvinkel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:33

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), an epithelial malignancy of the biliary tree, is one of the aggressive cancers with poor prognosis and unsatisfactory response to chemotherapy with acquired resistance. NAD(P)H-quinon...

    Authors: Pimradasiri Srijiwangsa, Saranyoo Ponnikorn and Kesara Na-Bangchang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:32

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  35. Content type: Research article

    In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare stent thrombosis (ST) and its different subtypes following treatment with DAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel) versus TAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol).

    Authors: Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:31

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Patterns of opioid dispensing often exhibit substantial temporal and geographical variability, which has implications for public health policy decisions and interventions. The study examined recent trends in p...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam, Ian S. McRae, Soumya Mazumdar, Paul Simpson, Dennis Wollersheim, Kaniz Fatema and Tony Butler

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:30

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients > 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measu...

    Authors: Karen Roksund Hov, Bjørn Erik Neerland, Anders Mikal Andersen, Øystein Undseth, Vegard Bruun Wyller, Alasdair M. J. MacLullich, Eva Skovlund, Eirik Qvigstad and Torgeir Bruun Wyller

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:29

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million li...

    Authors: Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme and Getu Bayisa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:28

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  39. Content type: Research article

    WHO pharmacovigilance indicators have been recommended as a useful tool towards improving pharmacovigilance activities. Nigeria with a myriad of medicines related issues is encouraging the growth of pharmacovi...

    Authors: Abimbola O. Opadeyi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat and Ambrose O. Isah

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:27

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Grifolic acid is a derivative of grifolin, an antitumor natural compound, and it was reported as an agonist of free fatty acid receptor GPR120. Little is known about its antitumor effects and the involvement o...

    Authors: Yufeng Zhao, Lei Zhang, Aili Yan, Di Chen, Rong Xie, Yingguang Liu, Xiangyan Liang, Yanyan Zhao, Lanlan Wei, Jun Yu, Xi Xu and Xingli Su

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:26

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica is a medicinal plant that is promoted as a “Champion Product” by the Government of Thailand. This plant has been reported to relieve postmenopausal symptoms, prevent and reverse b...

    Authors: Tosapol Anukunwithaya, Pilaslak Poo, Natthaphon Hunsakunachai, Ratchanee Rodsiri, Suchinda Malaivijitnond and Phisit Khemawoot

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:25

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options agai...

    Authors: Sileshi Tadesse, Haile Alemayehu, Admasu Tenna, Getachew Tadesse, Tefaye Sisay Tessema, Workineh Shibeshi and Tadesse Eguale

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:24

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-induced renal tubular dysfunction and hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) have been given great consideration in the past few years. However, no standard guidance is available due to a ...

    Authors: Nan Chen, Jian-bo Zhang, Qiujie Zhang, Yun-peng Zhao, Li-yan Li, Li-wei Liu, Fei Yu, Xin Yu, Tao Peng and Kuan-xiao Tang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:23

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  44. Content type: Research article

    β-blockers have several indications in critically ill patients and are commonly used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of β-blockers in critically ill patients and mortality.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Khalid A. Al Sulaiman, Hani Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:22

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used for pulp-capping procedures in permanent teeth and as a gold standard material in endodontics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of MTA on cell ...

    Authors: Chia-Ling Tsai, Mu-Chan Ke, Yi-Hao Chen, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Hun-Ju Yu, Chueh-Tan Chen, Ya-Chi Tseng, Pei-Chin Chuang and Pei-Chang Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:21

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, has seldom been used in patients with coronary artery disease. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in addition...

    Authors: Jun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:19

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Reviewer acknowledgments