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  1. Content type: Research article

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control by promoting GLP1-mediated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin have been shown to imp...

    Authors: Girish Parthan, Shobhit Bhansali, Anura V. Kurpad, Rama Walia, Kishor Bhat and Anil Bhansali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:38

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The aim of our study was to compare the ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) with atropine to counteract acute sarin-induced brain damage with the efficacy of antidotal tr...

    Authors: Filip Caisberger, Jaroslav Pejchal, Jan Misik, Jiri Kassa, Martin Valis and Kamil Kuca

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:35

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies indicate that inflammation may also affect CYP3A4 activity. Associations of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of quinine, with inflammatory biomarkers were investigated in patients undergoing maintenan...

    Authors: Hadi Molanaei, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Olof Heimbürger, Bengt Lindholm, Ulf Diczfalusy, Björn Anderstam, Leif Bertilsson and Peter Stenvinkel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:33

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  4. Content type: Research article

    A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability...

    Authors: Anum Saqib, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Sarfraz and Sadia Iftikhar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:34

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), an epithelial malignancy of the biliary tree, is one of the aggressive cancers with poor prognosis and unsatisfactory response to chemotherapy with acquired resistance. NAD(P)H-quinon...

    Authors: Pimradasiri Srijiwangsa, Saranyoo Ponnikorn and Kesara Na-Bangchang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:32

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Patterns of opioid dispensing often exhibit substantial temporal and geographical variability, which has implications for public health policy decisions and interventions. The study examined recent trends in p...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam, Ian S. McRae, Soumya Mazumdar, Paul Simpson, Dennis Wollersheim, Kaniz Fatema and Tony Butler

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:30

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  7. Content type: Research article

    In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare stent thrombosis (ST) and its different subtypes following treatment with DAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel) versus TAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol).

    Authors: Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:31

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients > 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measu...

    Authors: Karen Roksund Hov, Bjørn Erik Neerland, Anders Mikal Andersen, Øystein Undseth, Vegard Bruun Wyller, Alasdair M. J. MacLullich, Eva Skovlund, Eirik Qvigstad and Torgeir Bruun Wyller

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:29

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million li...

    Authors: Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme and Getu Bayisa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:28

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  10. Content type: Research article

    WHO pharmacovigilance indicators have been recommended as a useful tool towards improving pharmacovigilance activities. Nigeria with a myriad of medicines related issues is encouraging the growth of pharmacovi...

    Authors: Abimbola O. Opadeyi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat and Ambrose O. Isah

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:27

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Grifolic acid is a derivative of grifolin, an antitumor natural compound, and it was reported as an agonist of free fatty acid receptor GPR120. Little is known about its antitumor effects and the involvement o...

    Authors: Yufeng Zhao, Lei Zhang, Aili Yan, Di Chen, Rong Xie, Yingguang Liu, Xiangyan Liang, Yanyan Zhao, Lanlan Wei, Jun Yu, Xi Xu and Xingli Su

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:26

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica is a medicinal plant that is promoted as a “Champion Product” by the Government of Thailand. This plant has been reported to relieve postmenopausal symptoms, prevent and reverse b...

    Authors: Tosapol Anukunwithaya, Pilaslak Poo, Natthaphon Hunsakunachai, Ratchanee Rodsiri, Suchinda Malaivijitnond and Phisit Khemawoot

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:25

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options agai...

    Authors: Sileshi Tadesse, Haile Alemayehu, Admasu Tenna, Getachew Tadesse, Tefaye Sisay Tessema, Workineh Shibeshi and Tadesse Eguale

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:24

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-induced renal tubular dysfunction and hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) have been given great consideration in the past few years. However, no standard guidance is available due to a ...

    Authors: Nan Chen, Jian-bo Zhang, Qiujie Zhang, Yun-peng Zhao, Li-yan Li, Li-wei Liu, Fei Yu, Xin Yu, Tao Peng and Kuan-xiao Tang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:23

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  15. Content type: Research article

    β-blockers have several indications in critically ill patients and are commonly used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of β-blockers in critically ill patients and mortality.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Khalid A. Al Sulaiman, Hani Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:22

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used for pulp-capping procedures in permanent teeth and as a gold standard material in endodontics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of MTA on cell ...

    Authors: Chia-Ling Tsai, Mu-Chan Ke, Yi-Hao Chen, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Hun-Ju Yu, Chueh-Tan Chen, Ya-Chi Tseng, Pei-Chin Chuang and Pei-Chang Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:21

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, has seldom been used in patients with coronary artery disease. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in addition...

    Authors: Jun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:19

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing ...

    Authors: James Henry Obol, Peter Akera, Pamela Ochola Atim, Sylvia Awor, Ronald Wanyama, Kenneth Luryama Moi, Bongomin Bodo, Patrick Olwedo Odong, Emmanuel Otto Omony, Hussein Oria, David Musoke and Felix Kaducu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:17

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Traditional toxicological studies have relied heavily on various animal models to understand the effect of various compounds in a biological context. Considering the great cost, complexity and time involved in...

    Authors: Shan Gao, Weiyang Chen, Yingxin Zeng, Haiming Jing, Nan Zhang, Matthew Flavel, Markandeya Jois, Jing-Dong J. Han, Bo Xian and Guojun Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:18

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  20. Content type: Research article

    To describe frequency, preventability and seriousness of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children as cause of emergency department (ED) admission and to evaluate the association between specific factors and t...

    Authors: Niccolò Lombardi, Giada Crescioli, Alessandra Bettiol, Ettore Marconi, Antonio Vitiello, Roberto Bonaiuti, Anna Maria Calvani, Stefano Masi, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Alessandro Mugelli, Lisa Giovannelli and Alfredo Vannacci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:16

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Self-medication practice (SMP) is the use of medication without the prescription of health care professionals. The major problems associated with self-medication practice have been drug resistance, drug side e...

    Authors: Aster Desalew Kassie, Berhanu Boru Bifftu and Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:15

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The efficacy of tacrolimus (TAC) is variable in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS), which might be related to genetic variation among patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effects of CYP3 A4, CY...

    Authors: Min Li, Min Xu, Wei Liu and Xin Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:14

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease with no effective treatment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical stage during the development of fibrosis. To assess...

    Authors: Sun Young Kyung, Dae Young Kim, Jin Young Yoon, Eun Suk Son, Yu Jin Kim, Jeong Woong Park and Sung Hwan Jeong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:13

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  24. Content type: Research article

    A recent in vitro pilot investigation reported Rituximab significantly reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in healthy donors. Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilita...

    Authors: Natalie Eaton, Hélène Cabanas, Cassandra Balinas, Anne Klein, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:12

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  25. Content type: Research article

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the role of methylation in the regulation of microRNA (miR)-122, miR-125b and miR-106b gene expression and the expression of their target genes during isoniazid (INH)-induc...

    Authors: Yuhong Li, Qi Ren, Lingyan Zhu, Yingshu Li, Jinfeng Li, Yiyang Zhang, Guoying Zheng, Tiesheng Han, Shufeng Sun and Fumin Feng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:11

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Accumulation of toxic free cholesterol in hepatocytes may cause hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Volixibat inhibits bile acid reuptake via the apical sodium bile acid transporter located on the luminal surfa...

    Authors: Melissa Palmer, Lee Jennings, Debra G. Silberg, Caleb Bliss and Patrick Martin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:10

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Based on accumulating evidence, the regulation of protein expression by antipsychotic drugs (APDs) might be closely related to the control of psychotic symptoms when these drugs are used to treat mental disord...

    Authors: Tinchou Li, Mingcheng Lee, Fuming Tsai, Yunhsiang Chen, Yiyin Lin and Maoliang Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:9

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Based on in vitro and in vivo rat experiments, the newly developed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator, K203, appears to be much more effective in the treatment of tabun poisonings than currently fielded o...

    Authors: Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Daniel Jun, Jana Zdarova-Karasova, Eugenie Nepovimova, Ondrej Soukup, Martina Hrabinova, John Mikler, Tanos C. C. Franca, Elaine F. F. Da Cunha, Alexandre A. De Castro, Martin Valis and Teodorico C. Ramalho

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:8

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Tomatidine (TO) is a plant steroidal alkaloid that possesses an antibacterial activity against the small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus. We report here the spectrum of activity of TO against othe...

    Authors: Isabelle Guay, Simon Boulanger, Charles Isabelle, Eric Brouillette, Félix Chagnon, Kamal Bouarab, Eric Marsault and François Malouin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:7

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Clonidine is an imidazoline sympatholytic, acting on both α2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the brainstem to induce antihypertensive and negative chronotropic effects in the vasculature and heart respect...

    Authors: Alexander J. Sandweiss, Christopher M. Morrison, Anne Spichler and John Rozich

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:6

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite that sophisticated techniques of radiotherapy and radiation combined with chemotherapy were applied to the patients, some tumor...

    Authors: I-Yun Lee, Yin-Yin Lin, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yu-Shin Lin, Chun-Liang Lin, Wei-Yu Lin, Yu-Ching Cheng, Li-Hsin Shu and Ching-Yuan Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:5

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Oral administration of drugs is convenient and shows good compliance but it can be affected by many factors in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Consumption of food is one of the major factors affecting the GI...

    Authors: Hyun-moon Back, Byungjeong Song, Sudeep Pradhan, Jung-woo Chae, Nayoung Han, Wonku Kang, Min Jung Chang, Jiao Zheng, Kwang-il Kwon, Mats O. Karlsson and Hwi-yeol Yun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:4

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used in the treatment of many types of cancers but its cardiotoxicity is limiting its clinical use. Beyond its anticoagulant action, enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight hepar...

    Authors: Reem Ali Shaker, Samer Hassan Abboud, Hayder Chasib Assad and Najah Hadi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:3

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  34. Content type: Research article

    In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe ma...

    Authors: Nana Tsiklauri, Natia Pirkulashvili, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Elene Abzianidze and Merab G. Tsagareli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:2

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Several countries have used pegylation technology to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of essential drugs. Recently, a novel interferon alfa-2b protein conjugated to four-branched 12 kDa polyethylene glyc...

    Authors: Marisa Boff Costa, Paulo Dornelles Picon, Guilherme Becker Sander, Hugo Nodarse Cuni, Carmen Valenzuela Silva, Rolando Páez Meireles, Ana Carolina Magalhães Andrade Góes, Nadia Maria Batoreu, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Elizabeth Maciel Albuquerque, Denise Cristina de Souza Matos and Pedro Lopez Saura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:1

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  36. Content type: Research article

    This study aims at characterizing the in vitro metabolism of cryptolepine using human and rat hepatocytes, identifying metabolites in rat plasma and urine after a single cryptolepine dose, and evaluating the s...

    Authors: Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, David Pearson, Werner Gertsch, Amanda Cirello, Adam Amaral, Jaimie Spear, Colin W. Wright and Caroline Rynn

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:84

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  37. Content type: Research article

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain where it regulates activity of neuronal networks. The receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the hippocampu...

    Authors: Omar Babateen, Sergiy V. Korol, Zhe Jin, Amol K. Bhandage, Aikeremu Ahemaiti and Bryndis Birnir

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:83

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, afatinib has been shown to have better efficacy in the treatment of ...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Yang, Ming-Ju Tsai, Jen-Yu Hung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Ming Tsai, Yu-Chen Tsai, Jui-Feng Hsu, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Shyan Huang and Inn-Wen Chong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:82

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Prasugrel and Ticagrelor are emerging antiplatelet drugs that might have the potential to replace currently used antiplatelet agents. Previous analyses comparing prasugrel with ticagrelor mainly focused on an ...

    Authors: Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Jia-Xin Shi and Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:80

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Inquiries relating to ibuprofen overdose have more than tripled in the last ten years in our poison control center. Although the vast majority of cases have a benign clinical course, there are few severe or ev...

    Authors: Stefanie Geith, Bertold Renner, Christian Rabe, Jochen Stenzel and Florian Eyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:81

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale.

    Authors: Muhammad M. Hammami, Sophia J. S. De Padua, Rajaa Hussein, Eman Al Gaai, Nesrine A. Khodr, Reem Al-Swayeh, Syed N. Alvi and Nada Binhashim

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:78

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety.

    Authors: Alan O. Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal and Selene G. Huerta-Olvera

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:79

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the most aggressive cancer diseases affecting the human body. Recent research has shown the importance of the perioperative phase in disease progression. Particularly d...

    Authors: Manuela Malsy, Bernhard Graf and Anika Bundscherer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:77

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Many elderly patients receive psychotropic drugs. Treatment with psychotropic agents is associated with serious side effects including an increased risk of falls and fractures. Several psychotropic drugs are c...

    Authors: Inken Arnold, Kati Straube, Wolfgang Himmel, Stephanie Heinemann, Vivien Weiss, Laura Heyden, Eva Hummers-Pradier and Roland Nau

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:76

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Cancer patients may receive a high number of medications with the potential to prolong QT interval and subsequent TdP (torsades de pointes). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, ...

    Authors: Qasim Khan, Mohammad Ismail and Sehrash Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:75

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Several studies have reported that daptomycin induced artificial prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) in some test reagents, particularly in warfarin users. However, it remains unknown whether the artificial ...

    Authors: Hideki Hashimoto, Makoto Saito, Naoki Kanda, Takehito Yamamoto, Makiko Mieno and Shuji Hatakeyama

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:74

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharma...

    Authors: Xueqing Li, Rutao Wang, Yang Liu, Yun Liu, Heng Zheng, Yabo Feng, Na Zhao, Hongbin Geng, Wanzhi Zhang and Aidong Wen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:73

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylli...

    Authors: Ram Manohar Basnet, Daniela Zizioli, Michela Guarienti, Dario Finazzi and Maurizio Memo

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:72

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Although there are systems for reporting adverse drug reactions (ADR), these safety events remain under reported. The low-cost, low-tech trigger tool method is based on the detection of events through clues, and ...

    Authors: Silvana Maria de Almeida, Aruana Romualdo, Andressa de Abreu Ferraresi, Giovana Roberta Zelezoglo, Alexandre R. Marra and Michael B. Edmond

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:71

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Reviewer acknowledgments