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  1. Content type: Research article

    Guidelines recommending vancomycin trough concentrations > 10 mg/L in non-deep seated infections are based on expert opinion. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with non-deep seated infection...

    Authors: Michael Wan, Sandra A. N. Walker, Elaine Martin, Marion Elligsen, Lesley Palmay and Jerome A. Leis

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:47

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  2. Content type: Research article

    It is an established fact that humans and animals are exposed to more than one chemical concurrently from various sources such as food, air and water. In the past, much emphasis was laid on evaluating the toxi...

    Authors: Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina and Shilpa Sood

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:48

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of misuse of antibiotics, a problem that leads to unnecessary adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic prescription in Ecuador was analyzed ...

    Authors: Xavier Sánchez Choez, María Luciana Armijos Acurio and Ruth E. Jimbo Sotomayor

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:46

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) detected in human cord blood and milk. NP exposure in developmental periods results in hyperadrenalism and increasing 11β-hydroxysteroid...

    Authors: Ling-Ling Chang, Wan-Song Alfred Wun and Paulus S. Wang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:45

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) can be used as non-viral vectors in gene transfer and drug delivery. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its cytotoxicity has not been well elucidated yet.

    Authors: Ying Li, Xiu-Liang Cui, Qing-Shan Chen, Jing Yu, Hai Zhang, Jie Gao, Du-Xin Sun and Guo-Qing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:43

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Current studies have demonstrated that DODAC/PHO-S (Dioctadecyldimethylammonium Chloride/Synthetic phosphoethanolamine) liposomes induces cytotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 and B16F10 murine tumor cells, with a higher ...

    Authors: Arthur Cássio de Lima Luna, Greice Kelle Viegas Saraiva, Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice, Henrique Hesse and Durvanei Augusto Maria

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:44

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Ambroxol relieves cough symptoms based on its secretagogue, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, immunomodulatory and local anesthetic effects. The present study was designed to explore...

    Authors: Peter Kardos, Kai-Michael Beeh, Ulrike Sent, Tobias Mueck, Heidemarie Gräter and Martin C. Michel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:40

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Emergence of resistance to artemisinins and some of their combinations in chemotherapy of clinical malaria has intensified the search for novel safe efficacious antimalarial molecules. Fourteen synthetic 1, 4-...

    Authors: Moses N. Ngemenya, Grace Ntube Abwenzoh, Hermia Nalova Ikome, Denis Zofou, Fidele Ntie-Kang and Simon M. N. Efange

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:42

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  9. Content type: Case report

    Polymyxin B (PMB), which is regarded as the ultimate antibacterial treatment against some intractable gram-negative bacteria with its outstanding anti-bacterial activities, inflicts several adverse effects on ...

    Authors: Guanhao Zheng, Li Cao, Zaiqian Che, Enqiang Mao, Erzhen Chen and Juan He

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:41

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Immunosuppressant drugs for renal transplant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The specific site of GI tract targeted by MMF an...

    Authors: Yichen Jia, Rulin Wang, Long Li, Ying Zhang, Jiawei Li, Jina Wang, Xuanchuan Wang, Guisheng Qi, Ruiming Rong, Ming Xu and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:39

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control by promoting GLP1-mediated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin have been shown to imp...

    Authors: Girish Parthan, Shobhit Bhansali, Anura V. Kurpad, Rama Walia, Kishor Bhat and Anil Bhansali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:38

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Topical administration of PR022, 0.05% hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in gel has been demonstrated to be beneficial in a chronic murine atopic dermatitis model. In a follow up study we tested a higher concentration ...

    Authors: Tomoki Fukuyama, Sarah Ehling, Jenny Wilzopolski and Wolfgang Bäumer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:37

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The possibility of self-medication is higher in health sciences students than other students because of easy access to drug information resources and relatively sufficient familiarity with various kinds of dru...

    Authors: Alireza Abdi, Azam Faraji, Fateme Dehghan and Alireza Khatony

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:36

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The aim of our study was to compare the ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) with atropine to counteract acute sarin-induced brain damage with the efficacy of antidotal tr...

    Authors: Filip Caisberger, Jaroslav Pejchal, Jan Misik, Jiri Kassa, Martin Valis and Kamil Kuca

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:35

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies indicate that inflammation may also affect CYP3A4 activity. Associations of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of quinine, with inflammatory biomarkers were investigated in patients undergoing maintenan...

    Authors: Hadi Molanaei, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Olof Heimbürger, Bengt Lindholm, Ulf Diczfalusy, Björn Anderstam, Leif Bertilsson and Peter Stenvinkel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:33

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  16. Content type: Research article

    A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability...

    Authors: Anum Saqib, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Sarfraz and Sadia Iftikhar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:34

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), an epithelial malignancy of the biliary tree, is one of the aggressive cancers with poor prognosis and unsatisfactory response to chemotherapy with acquired resistance. NAD(P)H-quinon...

    Authors: Pimradasiri Srijiwangsa, Saranyoo Ponnikorn and Kesara Na-Bangchang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:32

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Patterns of opioid dispensing often exhibit substantial temporal and geographical variability, which has implications for public health policy decisions and interventions. The study examined recent trends in p...

    Authors: M Mofizul Islam, Ian S. McRae, Soumya Mazumdar, Paul Simpson, Dennis Wollersheim, Kaniz Fatema and Tony Butler

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:30

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare stent thrombosis (ST) and its different subtypes following treatment with DAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel) versus TAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol).

    Authors: Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:31

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients > 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measu...

    Authors: Karen Roksund Hov, Bjørn Erik Neerland, Anders Mikal Andersen, Øystein Undseth, Vegard Bruun Wyller, Alasdair M. J. MacLullich, Eva Skovlund, Eirik Qvigstad and Torgeir Bruun Wyller

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:29

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million li...

    Authors: Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme and Getu Bayisa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:28

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  22. Content type: Research article

    WHO pharmacovigilance indicators have been recommended as a useful tool towards improving pharmacovigilance activities. Nigeria with a myriad of medicines related issues is encouraging the growth of pharmacovi...

    Authors: Abimbola O. Opadeyi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat and Ambrose O. Isah

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:27

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Grifolic acid is a derivative of grifolin, an antitumor natural compound, and it was reported as an agonist of free fatty acid receptor GPR120. Little is known about its antitumor effects and the involvement o...

    Authors: Yufeng Zhao, Lei Zhang, Aili Yan, Di Chen, Rong Xie, Yingguang Liu, Xiangyan Liang, Yanyan Zhao, Lanlan Wei, Jun Yu, Xi Xu and Xingli Su

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:26

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica is a medicinal plant that is promoted as a “Champion Product” by the Government of Thailand. This plant has been reported to relieve postmenopausal symptoms, prevent and reverse b...

    Authors: Tosapol Anukunwithaya, Pilaslak Poo, Natthaphon Hunsakunachai, Ratchanee Rodsiri, Suchinda Malaivijitnond and Phisit Khemawoot

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:25

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options agai...

    Authors: Sileshi Tadesse, Haile Alemayehu, Admasu Tenna, Getachew Tadesse, Tefaye Sisay Tessema, Workineh Shibeshi and Tadesse Eguale

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:24

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-induced renal tubular dysfunction and hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) have been given great consideration in the past few years. However, no standard guidance is available due to a ...

    Authors: Nan Chen, Jian-bo Zhang, Qiujie Zhang, Yun-peng Zhao, Li-yan Li, Li-wei Liu, Fei Yu, Xin Yu, Tao Peng and Kuan-xiao Tang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:23

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  27. Content type: Research article

    β-blockers have several indications in critically ill patients and are commonly used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of β-blockers in critically ill patients and mortality.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Khalid A. Al Sulaiman, Hani Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:22

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used for pulp-capping procedures in permanent teeth and as a gold standard material in endodontics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of MTA on cell ...

    Authors: Chia-Ling Tsai, Mu-Chan Ke, Yi-Hao Chen, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Hun-Ju Yu, Chueh-Tan Chen, Ya-Chi Tseng, Pei-Chin Chuang and Pei-Chang Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:21

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, has seldom been used in patients with coronary artery disease. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in addition...

    Authors: Jun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:19

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing ...

    Authors: James Henry Obol, Peter Akera, Pamela Ochola Atim, Sylvia Awor, Ronald Wanyama, Kenneth Luryama Moi, Bongomin Bodo, Patrick Olwedo Odong, Emmanuel Otto Omony, Hussein Oria, David Musoke and Felix Kaducu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:17

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Traditional toxicological studies have relied heavily on various animal models to understand the effect of various compounds in a biological context. Considering the great cost, complexity and time involved in...

    Authors: Shan Gao, Weiyang Chen, Yingxin Zeng, Haiming Jing, Nan Zhang, Matthew Flavel, Markandeya Jois, Jing-Dong J. Han, Bo Xian and Guojun Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:18

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  32. Content type: Research article

    To describe frequency, preventability and seriousness of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children as cause of emergency department (ED) admission and to evaluate the association between specific factors and t...

    Authors: Niccolò Lombardi, Giada Crescioli, Alessandra Bettiol, Ettore Marconi, Antonio Vitiello, Roberto Bonaiuti, Anna Maria Calvani, Stefano Masi, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Alessandro Mugelli, Lisa Giovannelli and Alfredo Vannacci

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:16

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Self-medication practice (SMP) is the use of medication without the prescription of health care professionals. The major problems associated with self-medication practice have been drug resistance, drug side e...

    Authors: Aster Desalew Kassie, Berhanu Boru Bifftu and Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:15

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The efficacy of tacrolimus (TAC) is variable in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS), which might be related to genetic variation among patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effects of CYP3 A4, CY...

    Authors: Min Li, Min Xu, Wei Liu and Xin Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:14

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease with no effective treatment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical stage during the development of fibrosis. To assess...

    Authors: Sun Young Kyung, Dae Young Kim, Jin Young Yoon, Eun Suk Son, Yu Jin Kim, Jeong Woong Park and Sung Hwan Jeong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:13

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  36. Content type: Research article

    A recent in vitro pilot investigation reported Rituximab significantly reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in healthy donors. Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilita...

    Authors: Natalie Eaton, Hélène Cabanas, Cassandra Balinas, Anne Klein, Donald Staines and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:12

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  37. Content type: Research article

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the role of methylation in the regulation of microRNA (miR)-122, miR-125b and miR-106b gene expression and the expression of their target genes during isoniazid (INH)-induc...

    Authors: Yuhong Li, Qi Ren, Lingyan Zhu, Yingshu Li, Jinfeng Li, Yiyang Zhang, Guoying Zheng, Tiesheng Han, Shufeng Sun and Fumin Feng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:11

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Accumulation of toxic free cholesterol in hepatocytes may cause hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Volixibat inhibits bile acid reuptake via the apical sodium bile acid transporter located on the luminal surfa...

    Authors: Melissa Palmer, Lee Jennings, Debra G. Silberg, Caleb Bliss and Patrick Martin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:10

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Based on accumulating evidence, the regulation of protein expression by antipsychotic drugs (APDs) might be closely related to the control of psychotic symptoms when these drugs are used to treat mental disord...

    Authors: Tinchou Li, Mingcheng Lee, Fuming Tsai, Yunhsiang Chen, Yiyin Lin and Maoliang Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:9

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Based on in vitro and in vivo rat experiments, the newly developed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator, K203, appears to be much more effective in the treatment of tabun poisonings than currently fielded o...

    Authors: Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Daniel Jun, Jana Zdarova-Karasova, Eugenie Nepovimova, Ondrej Soukup, Martina Hrabinova, John Mikler, Tanos C. C. Franca, Elaine F. F. Da Cunha, Alexandre A. De Castro, Martin Valis and Teodorico C. Ramalho

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:8

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Tomatidine (TO) is a plant steroidal alkaloid that possesses an antibacterial activity against the small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus. We report here the spectrum of activity of TO against othe...

    Authors: Isabelle Guay, Simon Boulanger, Charles Isabelle, Eric Brouillette, Félix Chagnon, Kamal Bouarab, Eric Marsault and François Malouin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:7

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  42. Content type: Case report

    Clonidine is an imidazoline sympatholytic, acting on both α2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the brainstem to induce antihypertensive and negative chronotropic effects in the vasculature and heart respect...

    Authors: Alexander J. Sandweiss, Christopher M. Morrison, Anne Spichler and John Rozich

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:6

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite that sophisticated techniques of radiotherapy and radiation combined with chemotherapy were applied to the patients, some tumor...

    Authors: I-Yun Lee, Yin-Yin Lin, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yu-Shin Lin, Chun-Liang Lin, Wei-Yu Lin, Yu-Ching Cheng, Li-Hsin Shu and Ching-Yuan Wu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:5

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Oral administration of drugs is convenient and shows good compliance but it can be affected by many factors in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Consumption of food is one of the major factors affecting the GI...

    Authors: Hyun-moon Back, Byungjeong Song, Sudeep Pradhan, Jung-woo Chae, Nayoung Han, Wonku Kang, Min Jung Chang, Jiao Zheng, Kwang-il Kwon, Mats O. Karlsson and Hwi-yeol Yun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:4

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used in the treatment of many types of cancers but its cardiotoxicity is limiting its clinical use. Beyond its anticoagulant action, enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight hepar...

    Authors: Reem Ali Shaker, Samer Hassan Abboud, Hayder Chasib Assad and Najah Hadi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:3

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  46. Content type: Research article

    In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe ma...

    Authors: Nana Tsiklauri, Natia Pirkulashvili, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Elene Abzianidze and Merab G. Tsagareli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:2

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Several countries have used pegylation technology to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of essential drugs. Recently, a novel interferon alfa-2b protein conjugated to four-branched 12 kDa polyethylene glyc...

    Authors: Marisa Boff Costa, Paulo Dornelles Picon, Guilherme Becker Sander, Hugo Nodarse Cuni, Carmen Valenzuela Silva, Rolando Páez Meireles, Ana Carolina Magalhães Andrade Góes, Nadia Maria Batoreu, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Elizabeth Maciel Albuquerque, Denise Cristina de Souza Matos and Pedro Lopez Saura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018 19:1

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  48. Content type: Research article

    This study aims at characterizing the in vitro metabolism of cryptolepine using human and rat hepatocytes, identifying metabolites in rat plasma and urine after a single cryptolepine dose, and evaluating the s...

    Authors: Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, David Pearson, Werner Gertsch, Amanda Cirello, Adam Amaral, Jaimie Spear, Colin W. Wright and Caroline Rynn

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:84

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  49. Content type: Research article

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain where it regulates activity of neuronal networks. The receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the hippocampu...

    Authors: Omar Babateen, Sergiy V. Korol, Zhe Jin, Amol K. Bhandage, Aikeremu Ahemaiti and Bryndis Birnir

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017 18:83

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Reviewer acknowledgments