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  1. Cyclosporine-A has been regarded as an immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of various immune inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of Cyclosporine-A on the retina of type 2 diabe...

    Authors: Peng Wang, Fei Chen and Xuedong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that comprises several pathological events, such as adipose hypertrophy, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Inflammation is a key contributer to development of thes...

    Authors: Mohammad Alsaggar, Shifa Bdour, Qutaibah Ababneh, Tamam El-Elimat, Nidal Qinna and Karem H. Alzoubi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:8

    Content type: Research article

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  3. 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbence-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is a polyhydroxyphenolic compound, which exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-depression, anti-oxidat...

    Authors: Cheng Wang, Yimeng Zhou, Xiaohong Gong, Li Zheng and Yunxia Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Leakage following colorectal anastomosis surgery causes various complications associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in pediatric patients. It might be caused by the use of non-steroidal anti...

    Authors: Eko Purnomo, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih, Nunik Agustriani and Gunadi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:6

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit SGLT2, which is expressed in the proximal renal tubule, and thus reduce blood glucose levels by enabling the urinary excretion of excess glucose. SGLT2...

    Authors: Miho Nakamura, Junya Nakade, Tadashi Toyama, Masaki Okajima and Takumi Taniguchi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:5

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Cola nitida is commonly chewed in many West African cultures to ease hunger pangs and sometimes for their stimulant and euphoriant qualities. Metoclopramide is a known substrate for P-gp, SULT2A1 and CYP2D6 and s...

    Authors: Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi and Wisdom Izuchukwu Nwachukwu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:4

    Content type: Research article

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  7. 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective dicarbonyl electrophile scavenger being developed as a nutritional supplement to help protect against the development of conditions associated with dicarbonyl elect...

    Authors: Lisa M. Pitchford, Patricia M. Driver, John C. Fuller Jr, Wendell S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Ginger L. Milne, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Fei Ye, L. Jackson Roberts II, M. Benjamin Shoemaker, John A. Oates, John A. Rathmacher and Olivier Boutaud

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Liver ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage which is frequently seen in clinical hepatobiliary surgeries has no effective treatment for it. Liv-52, known to have hepatoprotective effects, is a natural antioxidant ...

    Authors: Orhan Cimen, Hüseyin Eken, Ferda Keskin Cimen, Arif Burak Cekic, Nezahat Kurt, Asli Ozbek Bilgin, Bahadir Suleyman, Halis Suleyman, Renad Mammadov, Kamil Pehlivanoglu and Eray Kurnaz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:2

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug, it catalyzed into its active form by Cytochrome 450 and Paraoxonase-1(PON-1). polymorphisms of genes encoding these enzymes will affect the efficacy of Clopidogrel. The main...

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhang, Mingxiao Chen, Long Zhang and Qiang Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:1

    Content type: Research article

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  10. FKB327 is a biosimilar of the adalimumab reference product (RP). The primary objective was to assess the relative bioavailability of FKB327 after a single subcutaneous (SC) dose via prefilled syringe (PFS), au...

    Authors: Jim Bush, Kazuki Kawakami and Rafael Muniz

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  11. T lymphocytes play an important role in contact hypersensitivity. This study aims to explore the immunosuppressive activity of SBF-1, an analog of saponin OSW-1, against T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Authors: Wei Chen, Xianying Fang, Yuan Gao, Ke Shi, Lijun Sun, Biao Yu, Qiong Luo and Qiang Xu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:86

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic and analgesic agent, is known to improve the analgesic efficacy of opioids and to attenuate central sensitisation and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Clinical use is, however, ...

    Authors: Martyn Harvey, Jamie Sleigh, Logan Voss, Mike Bickerdike, Ivaylo Dimitrov and William Denny

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:85

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Exposure to vinylcyclohexene (VCH) and methylmercury (MeHg+) can induce oxidative stress and gene modulation. Several studies have been evaluating the effects of VCH and MeHg+, but little is known about interacti...

    Authors: Bruna Candia Piccoli, Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Cláudia Sirlene Oliveira, Fernanda D’Avila da Silva, Michael Aschner and João Batista Teixeira da Rocha

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):83

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  14. The presence of impurities in some drugs may compromise the safety and efficacy of the patient’s treatment. Therefore, establishing of the biological safety of the impurities is essential. Diabetic patients ar...

    Authors: Camila F. A. Giordani, Sarah Campanharo, Nathalie R. Wingert, Lívia M. Bueno, Joanna W. Manoel, Barbara Costa, Shanda Cattani, Marcelo Dutra Arbo, Solange Cristina Garcia, Cássia Virginia Garcia, Nádia Maria Volpato, Elfrides Eva Scherman Schapoval and Martin Steppe

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):82

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  15. Tamoxifen is considered a prodrug of its active metabolite endoxifen, which is dependent on the CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes. Tamoxifen pharmacokinetic variability influences endoxifen exposure and, consequently, ...

    Authors: João Paulo Bianchi Ximenez, Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade, Maria Paula Marques, Eduardo Barbosa Coelho, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz and Vera Lucia Lanchote

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):81

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  16. Melatonin has been described in the literature as a potent antioxidant. However, melatonin presents variable, low bioavailability and a short half-life. The use of polymeric nanoparticulated systems has been p...

    Authors: Mariele F. Charão, Gabriela Goethel, Natália Brucker, Karina Paese, Vera L. Eifler-Lima, Adriana R. Pohlmann, Silvia S. Guterres and Solange C. Garcia

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):80

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  17. The γ-hexalactone is a flavoring agent for alcoholic beverages, teas, breads, dairy products, coffees, buttery products among others. It presents low molecular weight and exhibits sweet fruity aroma with nuanc...

    Authors: Luísa Zuravski, Taiane A. Escobar, Elizandra G. Schmitt, Queila D. F. Amaral, Fávero R. Paula, Thiago Duarte, Marta M. M. F. Duarte, Michel M. Machado, Luís F. S. Oliveira and Vanusa Manfredini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):79

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  18. Nickel and nickel-containing compounds (NCC) are known human carcinogens. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced malignant transformation remain unknown. Proposed mechanisms suggest that n...

    Authors: Luisa Jiménez-Vidal, Pedro Espitia-Pérez, José Torres-Ávila, Dina Ricardo-Caldera, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Claudia Galeano-Páez, Karina Pastor-Sierra and Lyda Espitia-Pérez

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):78

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  19. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main exogenous inductor of skin damage and so photoprotection is important to control skin disorders. The Antarctic moss Sanionia uncinata is an important source of antioxidants ...

    Authors: Andréia da Silva Fernandes, Lara Barroso Brito, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues Oliveira, Elisa Raquel Anastácio Ferraz, Heitor Evangelista, José Luiz Mazzei and Israel Felzenszwalb

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):77

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  20. Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease. Although the number of people infected is very high, the only drugs available to treat CD, nifurtimox (Nfx) and benznidazole, are highly toxic, particularly...

    Authors: Fabiana Gomes Nascimento Soares, Gabriela Göethel, Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Elisa Sauer, Estefania Birriel, Javier Varela, Itamar Luís Gonçalves, Gilsane Von Poser, Mercedes González, Daniel Fábio Kawano, Fávero Reisdorfer Paula, Eduardo Borges de Melo, Solange Cristina Garcia, Hugo Cerecetto and Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):76

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  21. Gasoline is a complex mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, in which aromatic compounds, such as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) feature as the main constituents. Simultaneous exposure to these...

    Authors: Angela Maria Moro, Elisa Sauer, Natália Brucker, Mariele Feiffer Charão, Bruna Gauer, Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento, Gabriela Goethel, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte and Solange Cristina Garcia

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20(Suppl 1):75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 1

  22. For many decades, the sting of Samsun ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis) has been a serious clinical challenge for the people living in some of the major Middle East and Asian countries. In the present study, the th...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Alhazza, Hossam Ebaid, Bahaa Abdel-Salam, Jameel H. Al-Tamimi, Iftekhar Hassan, Ahmed M. Rady and Ashraf M. A. Mashaly

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:84

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Anti-neoplastic agents are widely used in the treatment of cancer and some non-neoplastic diseases. These drugs have been proved to be carcinogens, teratogens, and mutagens. Concern exists regarding the possib...

    Authors: Maral Ramazani, Razieh Pourahmad Jaktaji, Farshad H. Shirazi, Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Ahmad Salimi and Jalal Pourahmad

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Timolol Maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker that is commonly used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Despite its topical administration, ophthalmic timolol enters systemic circulation and produces a ...

    Authors: Zhuoying Wang, Ian Denys, Feng Chen, Lijie Cai, Xuecui Wang, Daniel R. Kapusta, Yongliang Lv and Juan Gao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:73

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. As a new generation antihistamine, fexofenadine has been widely used in allergic diseases. However, there is still a lack of collective evidence regarding the antihistamine effects and safety profiles of fexof...

    Authors: Cheng-zhi Huang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Jian Wang, Yue Luo and Hua Peng

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Dexmedetomidine was proved to mitigate bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity but mechanism of this ability is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiot...

    Authors: Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin, Tingting Lin, Xixi Cai, Linmin Pan, Shi Wang, Yaoyao Cai and Hongfei Chen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:70

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Ability to manage urges to smoke is fundamental to maximizing the chances of success in smoking cessation. Previous studies have linked a higher dose of nicotine in nicotine replacement therapy to a higher suc...

    Authors: Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Roland Perfekt, Elin Hall and Holger Kraiczi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Eribulin improves survival in pre-treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). However, limited data exist on co-morbidities and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy. The purpose of this study was to r...

    Authors: Milana Bergamino Sirvén, Adela Fernández-Ortega, Agostina Stradella, Idoia Morilla, Catalina Falo, Silvia Vázquez, Roser Castany, Rafael Villanueva, Sabela Recalde, Valentí Navarro Pérez, Miguel Gil-Gil and Sonia Pernas

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, although involving two different tumour suppressor genes (neurofibromin and merlin, respectively), are both cancer predisposition syndromes that disproportionately affect cells of ne...

    Authors: Yu-chi Shen, Caroline Arellano-Garcia, Rosa E. Menjivar, Ethan M. Jewett, Wolfgang Dohle, Sofiia Karchugina, Jonathan Chernoff, Barry V. L. Potter and Kate F. Barald

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Colchicine is a clinical medicine used for relief from gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Because of its toxic effects, intravenous injection of colchicine has been banned, but it is still widely administe...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Yingjun Xie, Minyi Yan, Qianying Pan, Yi Liang and Xiaofang Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, lead...

    Authors: Milo Gatti, Emanuel Raschi and Fabrizio De Ponti

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:65

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS. ART regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment p...

    Authors: Zerihun Ataro, Birhanu Motbaynor, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Mekonnen Sisay, Tewodros Tesfa, Habtamu Mitiku, Dadi Marami, Zelalem Teklemariam and Zewdneh Shewamene

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:63

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Cardiovascular events (CVEs) was considered as one of the primary cause to reduce the quality of life in breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) treatment, which has not been sufficiently addres...

    Authors: Yang He, Jianhua Zhang, Guofang Shen, Lin Liu, Qingwei Zhao, Xiaoyang Lu, Hongyu Yang and Dongsheng Hong

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:62

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. In recent years, targeted therapy has received widespread attention. Among these therapies, anti-angiogenic targeted drugs have become one of the hotspots of research. Apatinib is a novel oral small molecule a...

    Authors: Guohui Liu, Chunbo Wang, Yunlong He and Mingyan E

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:61

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting practices by health care professionals remain poor. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are perceived as safe; however, they can also cause ADRs. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Josipa Bukic, Doris Rusic, Petar Mas, Deni Karabatic, Josko Bozic, Ana Seselja Perisin, Dario Leskur, Darko Krnic, Sinisa Tomic and Darko Modun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:60

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Studies have indicated that changed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in epithelial cells from the kidney could affect the renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). As Angiotensin II (An...

    Authors: Hao Huang, Yanqin Fan, Zhao Gao, Wei Wang, Ning Shao, Lu Zhang, Yingjie Yang, Weifang Zhu, Zhaowei Chen, Jijia Hu and Guohua Ding

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:59

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Among adipose-derived factors, adipocytokines play roles as hormones and signaling mediators for apoptotic pathway. Among of them, vaspin, regulates the metabolism of adipose tissue itself as an endocrine orga...

    Authors: Magdalena Skonieczna, Dorota Hudy, Tomasz Hejmo, Rafal J. Buldak, Małgorzata Adamiec and Michal Kukla

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Poncirin is flavanone derivative (isolated from Poncirus trifoliata) with known pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-colitic. The present study aimed to exp...

    Authors: Ruqayya Afridi, Ashraf Ullah Khan, Sidra Khalid, Bushra Shal, Hina Rasheed, Muhammad Zia Ullah, Omer Shehzad, Yeong Shik Kim and Salman Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. There are evidences that chlorogenic acid (CGA) has antidepressant effects, however the underlying molecular mechanism has not been well understood. The aim of the study was to explore the neuroprotective effe...

    Authors: Xiaowen Shi, Nian Zhou, Jieyi Cheng, Xunlong Shi, Hai Huang, Mingmei Zhou and Haiyan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:56

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Pharmaceutical opioid analgesic use continues to rise and is associated with potentially preventable harm including hospitalisation for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Spatial detection of opioid-related ADRs c...

    Authors: Wei Du, Shanley Chong, Andrew J. McLachlan, Lan Luo, Nicholas Glasgow and Danijela Gnjidic

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. The investigation of food-drug and plant-drug interactions has become increasingly important. In case of antibiotics, it is essential to achieve and maintain a plasma concentration sufficient for the antimicro...

    Authors: Tivadar Kiss, Zoltán Timár, Andrea Szabó, Anita Lukács, Viktória Velky, Gábor Oszlánczi, Edina Horváth, István Takács, István Zupkó and Dezső Csupor

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Apixaban effectively lowers the risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Systemic exposure to a given apixaban dose depends on multiple clearance pathway...

    Authors: Andrea Huppertz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Chris Dumschat, Kathrin I. Foerster, Jürgen Burhenne, Johanna Weiss, David Czock, Jan C. Purrucker, Timolaos Rizos and Walter E. Haefeli

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:53

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for psychotic disorders provide advantages in treatment compliance, but data on their use in pregnancy are very limited. We present a clinical case of aripiprazole L...

    Authors: Isabel Ballester-Gracia, Miriam Pérez-Almarcha, Ana Galvez-Llompart and Miguel Hernandez-Viadel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:52

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been attributed to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin which adversely affect disease outcome leading to increased cancer related morbidity. The clin...

    Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Fazal Subhan, Nisar Ahmad and Robert D. E. Sewell

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:51

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Tigecycline, the first glycylcycline-class drug, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. We describe a case of sustained and severe hypoglycemia in a patient ...

    Authors: Yixin Chen, Lin Li, Nan Zhang and Hong Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:50

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  46. The progress of mass, community-directed, treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control was disrupted by severe adverse effects (SAE) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study aimed at...

    Authors: Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Daniel Muteba, Paul Mansiangi, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga and Yves Coppieters

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis enzyme inhibitors are the mainstays of pharmacological treatment. Unfortunately, they...

    Authors: Megan McGrath, Alissa Hofmann and Douglas E. Raines

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. MDMA causes serotonin (5-HT) syndrome immediately after administration and serotonergic injury in a few days or weeks. However, a serotonin syndrome is not always followed by serotonergic injury, indicating di...

    Authors: Ibrahim M. Shokry, Connor J. Shields, John J. Callanan, Zhiyuan Ma and Rui Tao

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:47

    Content type: Research article

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Reviewer acknowledgments

2019 Journal Metrics