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  1. Melittin is one of the most studied antimicrobial peptides, and several in vitro experiments have demonstrated its antibacterial efficacy. However, there is evidence showing melittin has non-promising effects suc...

    Authors: Parvin Askari, Mohammad Hasan Namaei, Kiarash Ghazvini and Mehran Hosseini
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:42
  2. Recently, the development of nanocarriers and the improvement of their biochemical properties have became of great importance. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have many applications in drug delivery sys...

    Authors: Mohammad Dahri, Hossein Akbarialiabad, Ahmad Miri Jahromi and Reza Maleki
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:41
  3. Ethnic differences in testicular cancer rates (TCRs) are recognized internationally. Cannabis is a known risk factor for testicular cancer (TC) in multiple studies with dose-response effects demonstrated, howe...

    Authors: Albert Stuart Reece and Gary Kenneth Hulse
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:40
  4. The present study investigated the ameliorative effect of melittin, a major polypeptide in the venom of honeybee (Apis mellifera), on isoniazid-(INH) and rifampicin-(RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rat...

    Authors: Khalid Mohammed Naji, Bushra Yahya Al-Khatib, Nora Saif Al-Haj and Myrene R. D’souza
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:39
  5. Subtilisin QK is a serine protease in the subtilisin family, and is fermented by Bacillus subtilis QK02. The fibrinolytic activity of subtilisin QK was measured by detecting low molecular weight degradation produ...

    Authors: Shuai Xiao, Dingbang Hu, Ya Gao, Yang Ai, Sang Luo, Song Chen, Ben Wang, Li Zhou, Yanshan Dong and Yefu Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:38
  6. Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:37

    The original article was published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

  7. Drug-induced toxicity is one of the problems that have negatively impacted on the well-being of populations throughout the world, including Malawi. It results in unnecessary hospitalizations, retarding the dev...

    Authors: Ibrahim Chikowe, Alfred Chipanda Phiri, Kirios Patrick Mbewe and Dunstan Matekenya
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:36
  8. Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) has a negative impact on the recovery, quality of life, and physical functioning of elderly patients. This study aimed to test the superiority of parecoxib vs. placebo in prev...

    Authors: Xiaodong Ge, Yan Pan, Danfeng Jin, Ying Wang and Shengjin Ge
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:35
  9. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by an elevated glycemic index and are at a higher risk for complications such as cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral ...

    Authors: Robert Dobbins, Elizabeth K. Hussey, Robin O’Connor-Semmes, Susan Andrews, Wenli Tao, William O. Wilkison, Bentley Cheatham, Katare Sagar and Barkate Hanmant
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:34
  10. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of allisartan, a new angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on vascular remodeling through voltage gated potassium channels (Kv7) in hypertensi...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Zhang, Ziying Zhao, Chunfang Xu, Fengping Zhao and Zhiqiang Yan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:33
  11. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause several kinds of nosocomial infections. Increasing antibiotic resistance as well as identifying genetic diversity and factors associated with pa...

    Authors: Maryam Hazhirkamal, Omid Zarei, Mahsa Movahedi, Pezhman Karami, Leili Shokoohizadeh and Mohammad Taheri
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:32
  12. The aim of this study is to examine the association of hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia on the first day of ICU admission with mortality in septic critically ill patients.

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Albatool M. Al Meshari, Hani Tamim, Sheryl Ann I. Abdukahil, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen Arabi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:30
  13. Drug potency is a pharmacological parameter defining dose or concentration of drug required to obtain 50% of the drug’s maximal effect. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation allows estimatio...

    Authors: Bernard Ngara, Simbarashe Zvada, Tariro Dianah Chawana, Charles Fungai Brian Nhachi and Simbarashe Rusakaniko
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:29
  14. Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for cancers; however, DOX induces cardiac toxicity, called DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. Although DOX-induced cardiomyopathy is known to be...

    Authors: Takaaki Furihata, Satoshi Maekawa, Shingo Takada, Naoya Kakutani, Hideo Nambu, Ryosuke Shirakawa, Takashi Yokota and Shintaro Kinugawa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:27
  15. We aim to develop a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) model of vancomycin for the treatment of septicemia in infants younger than one year. Factors influence of the PK was investigated to optimize vancomycin...

    Authors: Zhiling Li, Hongjing Li, Chenyu Wang, Zheng Jiao, Feng Xu and Huajun Sun
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:26
  16. There are no reports on the incidence of chronic mercury poisoning in a large population in China. This study investigated the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and follow-up of Chinese patient...

    Authors: Sun Yawei, Long Jianhai, Zhao Junxiu, Peng Xiaobo and Qiu Zewu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:25
  17. Surgical procedures cause perioperative immunosuppression and neuroendocrine stress, exerted by activation of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The acetylcholinesterase ...

    Authors: Mennatallah A Gowayed, Amany Abdel-Bary and Rasha A El-Tahan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:24
  18. Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is one of the major active components in bile acid. It was proven to have inhibitory activities on inflammation and also participate in host immuno-regulation. TCDCA exerts a...

    Authors: Lige Bao, Dacheng Hao, Xu Wang, Xiuling He, Wei Mao and Peifeng Li
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:23
  19. Low dose of NP exposure can alter adipose tissue formation, and the intake of high-fat diet (HFD) can also lead to the fatty liver disease. We investigated the combined effect of NP and HFD on the first offspr...

    Authors: Hongyu Zhang, Chengguang Song, Rong Yan, Hongbo Cai, Yi Zhou and Xiaoyu Ke
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:22
  20. Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid. Chronic exposure of humans to the pesticide occurs. Reports about immunotoxicity and proinflammatory effect of pyrethroids were published. The aim of the article was to check if sub...

    Authors: Oktawia Pylak-Piwko and Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:21
  21. A Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) de-escalation initiative was piloted at a Family Medicine Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) after a needs assessment showed that PPIs were prescribed inappropriately. The o...

    Authors: Joelle Ayoub, Jessina C. McGregor, Rebecca M. Castner and Harleen Singh
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:20
  22. Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people. The inorganic forms of arsenic are more toxic. Treatment for arsenic poisoning relies on chelation of extracellularly circulating arsenic molecules by 2,3-dimecapt...

    Authors: Victoria K. Mwaeni, James N. Nyariki, Ngalla Jillani, George Omwenga, Mathew Ngugi and Alfred Orina Isaac
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:19
  23. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but there are debates on the usefulness of vitamin D treatment. The interindividual variations in response may be d...

    Authors: Hamid Yaghooti, Fatemeh Ghanavati, Seyed Saeed Seyedian, Bahman Cheraghian and Narges Mohammadtaghvaei
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:18
  24. Musculoskeletal side effects related to isotretinoin are frequently reported. This study aimed to investigate the effect of oral isotretinoin treatment on muscle strength. Our second aim was to evaluate whethe...

    Authors: Cevriye Mülkoğlu and Nermin Karaosmanoğlu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:17
  25. Bupivacaine blocks many ion channels in the heart muscle, causing severe cardiotoxicity. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium type 2 channels (SK2 channels) are widely distributed in the heart cells a...

    Authors: Hongfei Chen, Zhousheng Jin, Fangfang Xia and Zhijian Fu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:15
  26. The impact of prior exposure to systemic corticosteroids on COVID-19 severity in patients hospitalized for a SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is not known. The present study was designed to answer to this question.

    Authors: Margaux Lafaurie, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Pierre Delobel, Nassim Kamar, Sandrine Charpentier, Agnès Sommet and Guillaume Moulis
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:14
  27. Linezolid is administered as a fixed dose to all patients despite evidence of overexposure and thrombocytopenia in renal impairment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk of thrombocytopenia and the...

    Authors: Hitoshi Kawasuji, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Chika Ogami, Kou Kimoto, Akitoshi Ueno, Yuki Miyajima, Koyomi Kawago, Ippei Sakamaki and Yoshihiro Yamamoto
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:13
  28. Poor quality medicines have serious implications for public health. The aim of this study was to explore the quality of the antidiabetic pioglitazone, using samples collected in China and Myanmar, and samples ...

    Authors: Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Naoko Yoshida, Hirohito Tsuboi, Erina Maeda, Andrea Vanessa Velasco Ibarra, Theingi Zin, Yoshio Akimoto, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto and Kazuko Kimura
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:12
  29. High-intensity statin therapy is typically used in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for secondary prevention. However, there have been consistent concerns regarding its association with diabetes...

    Authors: Jah Yeon Choi, Cheol Ung Choi, Byoung Geol Choi, Yoonjee Park, Dong Oh Kang, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Jin Oh Na, Jin Won Kim, Eung Ju Kim, Seung-Woon Rha, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Myung Ho Jeong, Sung-Chull Chae, In-Whan Seong…
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:11
  30. Aryl-propionic acid derivatives with ibuprofen as representative drug are very important for therapy, being recommended especially for anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. On other hand 1,3-thiazolidine-4-...

    Authors: Ioana-Mirela Vasincu, Maria Apotrosoaei, Sandra Constantin, Maria Butnaru, Liliana Vereștiuc, Cătălina-Elena Lupușoru, Frederic Buron, Sylvain Routier, Dan Lupașcu, Roxana-Georgiana Taușer and Lenuța Profire
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:10
  31. Emodin, a natural anthraquinone, has shown potential as an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases including cancer. However, its clinical development is hindered by uncertainties surroun...

    Authors: Alexander T. Sougiannis, Reilly T. Enos, Brandon N. VanderVeen, Kandy T. Velazquez, Brittany Kelly, Sierra McDonald, William Cotham, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Daping Fan and E. Angela Murphy
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:9
  32. Hormonal receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed molecular subtype of breast cancer; which showed good response to doxorubicin (DOX)-based chemotherapy. Eugenol (EUG) and astaxanth...

    Authors: Mariam A. Fouad, Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed, Etimad A. Huwait, Hafez F. Hafez and Abdel-Moneim M. Osman
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:8
  33. Oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contributes to the development of age-related macular degeneration, which is among the leading causes of visual loss in elderly people. In the present...

    Authors: Myung Hee Kim, Do-Hun Kim, Su Geun Yang and Dae Yu Kim
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:7
  34. Vigabatrin (VGB) is an approved non-traditional antiepileptic drug that has been revealed to have potential for treating brain tumors; however, its effect on ionic channels in glioma cells remains largely uncl...

    Authors: Te-Yu Hung, Huai-Ying Ingrid Huang, Sheng-Nan Wu and Chin-Wei Huang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:6
  35. Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity is a clinically important problem. Up to now, interventive therapy with n-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been considered as a gold-standard treatment for APAP overdose. Ho...

    Authors: Samaneh Nakhaee, Mohammad Dastjerdi, Hesam Roumi, Omid Mehrpour and Khadijeh Farrokhfall
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:4
  36. Considering the limited generalizability of previous anticholinergic burden scales, the Korean Anticholinergic Burden Scale (KABS) as a scale specific to the Korean population was developed. We aimed to valida...

    Authors: Sunghee Hwang, Jee Eun Chung, Kwanghee Jun, Young-Mi Ah, Kwang-Il Kim and Ju-Yeun Lee
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:2
  37. The development of novel and effective drugs for targeted human hepatocellular carcinoma still remains a great challenge. The alkaloid nitidine chloride (NC), a component of a traditional Chinese medicine, has...

    Authors: Danni Li, Shaogang Liu, Jiahao Zhu, Liqun Shen, Qi ying Zhang and Hua Zhu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:1
  38. A novel, high bioavailability oral, enteric coated tablet formulation of S-adenosylmethionine (MSI-195) has been developed for life science application. The present research reports on a Phase 1 study to (i) d...

    Authors: Beth R. Cameron, Ludvina Ferreira and I. David MacDonald
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:88
  39. Aging populations are often accompanied by comorbidity and polypharmacy, leading to increases in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We sought to evaluate the causes and characteristics of ADRs in older Korean adul...

    Authors: Seong-Dae Woo, Jiwon Yoon, Go-Eun Doo, Youjin Park, Youngsoo Lee, So-Hee Lee, Young-Hee Lee and Young-Min Ye
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:87
  40. Bempedoic acid is a new drug that reduces cholesterol synthesis via inhibiting ATP citrate lyase. It remains unclear whether the combination of bempedoic acid and other lipid-lowering drugs is better than thes...

    Authors: Xiang Zhao, Xubiao Ma, Xing Luo, Zhihua Shi, Ziwen Deng, Yuanxiang Jin, Zhipeng Xiao, Liming Tan, Pingfang Liu, Shilong Jiang, Yuanglu Shu, Bing Tang and Chengfeng Qiu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:86
  41. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of carnosine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Authors: Jing Ma, Xiaoyuan Xu, Ranran Wang, Haijing Yan, Huijuan Yao, Hongmei Zhang, Shaowei Jiang and Ajing Xu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:85
  42. Hypertension is the the primary cause of diastolic heart failure. Oxidative stress plays an important role in cardiac diastolic dysfunction caused by hypertension. The occurrence of oxidative stress is related...

    Authors: Xiaoli Guan, Xiaoying Guan, Changhong Lu, Bo Shang, Yuan Zhao, Ying Meng and Zhengyi Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:84
  43. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is a quaternary ammonium compound that is both a base corrosive and a cholinergic agonist, and it is widely used in the photoelectric and semiconductor industries. It cause...

    Authors: Chih-Kang Huang, Alan H. Hall, Ming-Ling Wu, Chen-Chang Yang, Dong-Zong Hung, Yan-Chiao Mao and Jou-Fang Deng
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:83
  44. Acute lung injury (ALI) together with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with high rate of mortality and morbidity in patients. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of con...

    Authors: Hassan Ali, Ashrafullah Khan, Jawad Ali, Hadayat Ullah, Adnan Khan, Hussain Ali, Nadeem Irshad and Salman Khan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2020 21:81
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