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  1. Content type: Research article

    The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the...

    Authors: Marwan A. Ahmed, George Muntingh and Paul Rheeder

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:44

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  2. Content type: Review

    With the increasing publicity of marijuana due to recent legislation, it is pertinent that the effects of fetal exposure to the drug are assessed. While in utero cannabis exposure has been associated with early p...

    Authors: Joseph Friedrich, Dara Khatib, Keon Parsa, Ariana Santopietro and G. Ian Gallicano

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:45

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Statins are used for treatment of hypercholestremia. Common adverse reports associated with use of statins are generalized bodyache, rhabdomyolysis, muscles weakness and gastrointestinal disorders. The current...

    Authors: Niaz Ali, Robina Begum, Muhammad Saleh Faisal, Aslam Khan, Muhammad Nabi, Gulfam Shehzadi, Shakir Ullah and Waqar Ali

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:43

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  4. Content type: Research article

    In some countries the misuse and diversion of prescribed opioid analgesic is increasing considerably, but there is no official data regarding the situation in Colombia. The aim of this study was to identify al...

    Authors: Maria G. Garcia-Orjuela, Lineth Alarcon-Franco, Juan C. Sanchez-Fernandez, Yuli Agudelo and Andres F. Zuluaga

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:42

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  5. Content type: Research article

    It has been observed that the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as compared to the placebo groups in some clinical trials conducted in China is weaker than that in trials conducted outside ...

    Authors: Lingyu He, Shu Liu, Chun Shan, Yingmei Tu, Zhengqing Li and Xiaohua Douglas Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:40

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Taxus (yew) is one of the most frequently reported plants causing potentially fatal outcome when taken incidentally or for suicidal reasons. A fast and reliable method of detection of poisonous compounds or th...

    Authors: Małgorzata Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Anna Marciniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Ściborski, Aneta Stachurska, Andrzej Mysiak and Adam Matkowski

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:41

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The elderly are frequently exposed to drug related problems causing hospitalizations and increased costs of care. Information about Romanian prescribing practices among the elderly and potential medication ass...

    Authors: Daniela Petruta Primejdie, Marius Traian Bojita and Adina Popa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:38

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is an antihelminthic drug whose P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate specificity has not been conclusively characterized. We investigated its specificity by comparing its in vitro intracellular accu...

    Authors: Gabriel Kigen and Geoffrey Edwards

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:37

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The number of medication errors occurring in healthcare is large and many are preventable. To analyze medication errors and evaluate whether Positive Deviance is effective in reducing them.

    Authors: Fabio Teixeira Ferracini, Alexandre R. Marra, Claudio Schvartsman, Oscar F. Pavão dos Santos, Elivane da Silva Victor, Neila Maria Marques Negrini, Wladimir Mendes Borges Filho and Michael B. Edmond

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:36

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most multiple resistances to antibiotics in the recent years. Therefore, practically-prescribed antibiotics in the treatment of these strains are not effective. Plant-deri...

    Authors: Supatcharee Siriwong, Yothin Teethaisong, Kanjana Thumanu, Benjawan Dunkhunthod and Griangsak Eumkeb

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:39

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their ...

    Authors: Dipankar Chaudhuri, Nikhil Baban Ghate, Sourav Panja and Nripendranath Mandal

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:34

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Fimasartan (FMS) is a potent angiotensin receptor blocker for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the transfer of FMS to fetus and breast milk in rats.

    Authors: Tae Hwan Kim, Min Gi Kim, Soyoung Shin, Yong-Ha Chi, Soo-Heui Paik, Joo-Han Lee, Sun Dong Yoo, Yu Seok Youn, Jürgen B. Bulitta, Sang Hoon Joo, Seok Won Jeong, Kwon-Yeon Weon and Beom Soo Shin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:35

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  13. Content type: Research article

    MotherToBaby Utah is a teratogen information service that provides support for pregnant and breastfeeding women and healthcare providers regarding risks of exposures to medications, infections, herbals, homeop...

    Authors: Sarah C. Campbell, Tyler T. Kast, Manijeh Kamyar, Julia Robertson and Catherine M. Sherwin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:33

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, diabetes and other human diseases. HDAC inhibitors, as a new class of potential therapeutic agents, have attracted a ...

    Authors: Yan-xin Huang, Jian Zhao, Qiu-hang Song, Li-hua Zheng, Cong Fan, Ting-ting Liu, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Li-biao Zhang and Yu-xin Li

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:32

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Olvanil (NE 19550) is a non-pungent synthetic analogue of capsaicin, the natural pungent ingredient of capsicum which activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel and was develop...

    Authors: Mohammad Alsalem, Paul Millns, Ahmad Altarifi, Khalid El-Salem, Victoria Chapman and David A. Kendall

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:31

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Sri Lanka has a high suicide rate, with more than 40 % of poisoning admissions due to overdose of drugs with Paracetamol being the commonest. Data regarding cardiotoxicity to paracetamol is very minimal though...

    Authors: Udaya Ralapanawa, Kushalee Poornima Jayawickreme, Ekanayake Mudiyanselage Madhushanka Ekanayake and A. M. S. Dhammika Menike Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:30

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  17. Content type: Research article

    All hematopoietic cells express P2 receptors, however pharmacological characteristics such as expression and affinity in granulocytes are unknown.

    Authors: Antonio Carlos Ribeiro-Filho, Marcus Vinicius Buri, Carlos Castilho Barros, Juliana Luporini Dreyfuss, Helena Bonciani Nader, Giselle Zenker Justo, Rogério Bastos Craveiro, João Bosco Pesquero, Antonio Miranda, Alice Teixeira Ferreira and Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:29

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  18. Content type: Research article

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) is a worldwide drug of abuse commonly used by adolescents. Most reports focus on MDMA’s neurotoxicity and use high doses in adult animals, meanwhile studie...

    Authors: Armanda Teixeira-Gomes, Vera Marisa Costa, Rita Feio-Azevedo, José Alberto Duarte, Margarida Duarte-Araújo, Eduarda Fernandes, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho and João Paulo Capela

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:28

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Prescription writing is a process which transfers the therapeutic message from the prescriber to the patient through the pharmacist. Prescribing errors, drug duplication and potential drug-drug interactions (p...

    Authors: Devarajan Rathish, Sivaswamy Bahini, Thanikai Sivakumar, Thilani Thiranagama, Tharmarajah Abarajithan, Buddhika Wijerathne, Channa Jayasumana and Sisira Siribaddana

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:27

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a cornerstone of graft acceptance. High numbers of Tregs are associated with better long-term graft survival. Recently, Vitamin D was suggested as an immunomodulator, in addition...

    Authors: Mostafa G. Aly, Karina Trojan, Rolf Weimer, Christian Morath, Gerhard Opelz, Mohammed A. Tohamy and Volker Daniel

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:24

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  21. Content type: Research article

    This study sought to assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships of caffeine citrate therapy in preterm neonates who had therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in the post-extubation period.

    Authors: Tian Yu, Alfred H. Balch, Robert M. Ward, E. Kent Korgenski and Catherine M. T. Sherwin

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:22

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations, in particular regarding novel psychoacti...

    Authors: Evangelia Liakoni, Patrick C. Dolder, Katharina M. Rentsch and Matthias E. Liechti

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:25

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  23. Content type: Research article

    An area of ongoing controversy is the role adenosine to regulate vascular tone in conduit vessels that regulate compliance, and the role of nitric oxide (NO), potassium channels and receptor subtypes involved....

    Authors: Aryadi Arsyad and Geoffrey P. Dobson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:23

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    Addiction, overdoses and deaths resulting from prescription opioids have increased dramatically over the last decade. In response, several manufacturers have developed formulations of opioids with abuse-deterr...

    Authors: Shannon L. Janoff, Nancy A. Perrin, Paul M. Coplan, Howard D. Chilcoat, Cynthia I. Campbell and Carla A. Green

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:21

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The choice of vasopressor use in the intensive care unit (ICU) depends primarily on provider preference. This study aims to describe the rate of vasopressor utilization and the trends of each vasoactive agent ...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Andrew M. Harrison, Perliveh Carrera, Narat Srivali, Wonngarm Kittamongkolchai, Aysen Erdogan and Kianoush B. Kashani

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:19

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  26. Content type: Study protocol

    Current guidelines for opioid dependence recommend daily maintenance of physical dependence with methadone or buprenorphine, and discourage abstinence due to the high risk of relapse and overdose. Extended-rel...

    Authors: Nikolaj Kunøe, Arild Opheim, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zhanna Gaulen, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Zill-e-Huma Latif and Lars Tanum

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:18

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Abatacept (ABA) is a fusion receptor protein containing the CTLA-4 domain that prevents the activation of naïve T cells by binding the CD80 and CD86 molecules expressed on the surface of dendritic cells, indic...

    Authors: Rossella Talotta, Fabiola Atzeni and Piercarlo Sarzi Puttini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:17

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by fat accumulation in the hepatocyte, inflammation, liver cell injury, and varying degrees of fibrosis, and can lead to oxidative stress in liver. Here, we...

    Authors: Ze-ran Yang, Hui-fang Wang, Tie-cheng Zuo, Li-li Guan and Ning Dai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:16

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Opioid maintenance treatment with methadone is regarded as gold standard in the therapy of opioid dependence. Identification of the ‘right’ methadone dose, however, remains challenging. We wanted to explore if...

    Authors: Stephan Walcher, John Koc, Volker Reichel, Frank Schlote, Uwe Verthein and Jens Reimer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:15

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has a detrimental effect on morbidity and mortality for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is therefore logical to attempt to eradicate new isolate...

    Authors: H. Kitt, W. Lenney and F. J. Gilchrist

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:14

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance....

    Authors: Josef Yayan, Beniam Ghebremedhin and Kurt Rasche

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:10

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of arterial hypertension are different in obese and lean patients, hypertension guidelines do not include specific recommendations for obesity-related hypertension and, ...

    Authors: Mauro Cataldi, Ornella di Geronimo, Rossella Trio, Antonella Scotti, Andrea Memoli, Domenico Capone and Bruna Guida

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:9

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Proarrhythmia assessment is one of the major concerns for regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical industry. ICH guidelines recommending preclinical tests have been established in attempt to eliminate the risk of ...

    Authors: Barbara Wiśniowska, Zofia Tylutki, Gabriela Wyszogrodzka and Sebastian Polak

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:12

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  34. Content type: Case report

    Symptoms of theophylline toxicity and factors that augment the risk of developing it are well documented in the literature. However these appear to be poorly considered in clinical practice. This case underlin...

    Authors: Michael E. Hopkins and Robert V. MacKenzie-Ross

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:13

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  35. Content type: Research article

    No studies have been conducted on rational drug use among children in Uzbekistan. This study aimed to analyze drug uses based on pharmaco-epidemiologic (PE) data from Regional Children’s Multi-Profile Medical ...

    Authors: Umida Ganieva, Ibrohim Alimdjanov, Marifat Ganieva and Tuhtasin Abdunazarov

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:11

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics due to its high antibacterial potency, wide spectrum of activity and low potential for toxicity. However, the global trend shows misuse of this drug. Th...

    Authors: Alemayehu Sileshi, Admasu Tenna, Mamo Feyissa and Workineh Shibeshi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:7

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Antiplatelet therapy may attenuate the undesirable effects of platelets on the inflammatory cascades in critical illness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between aspirin therapy dur...

    Authors: Shmeylan A. Al Harbi, Hani M. Tamim, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat and Yaseen M. Arabi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:5

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In hemodialysis patients, post-dialysis treatment with intravenous antibiotics permits even severe infections to be managed on an outpatient basis. Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with a broad sp...

    Authors: Eric Descombes, Filipe Martins, Ould Maouloud Hemett, Veronique Erard and Christian Chuard

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:4

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) constitutes a major hurdle in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of synthetic p-toluenesul...

    Authors: Armelle T. Mbaveng, Adriana Grozav Ignat, Bathélémy Ngameni, Valentin Zaharia, Bonaventure T. Ngadjui and Victor Kuete

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:3

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  40. Content type: Case report

    “Legal highs” are novel psychoactive substances that have evaded statutory control. Synthetic cannabinoid compounds with adamantane moieties have recently been identified, which have high potency at target rec...

    Authors: Graham McIlroy, Loretta Ford and Jawad M. Khan

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:2

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  41. Content type: Research article

    One of the most unfortunate events toddlers may encounter during their early years of curiosity and experimentation is substance poisoning. The aim of the study was to evaluate the poison severity score and it...

    Authors: Menyfah Q. Alanazi, Majed Al-Jeraisy and Mahmoud Salam

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2016 17:1

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Access to free essential medicines is a critical component of universal health coverage. However availability of essential medicines is poor in India with more than two-third of the people having limited or no...

    Authors: Shankar Prinja, Pankaj Bahuguna, Jaya Prasad Tripathy and Rajesh Kumar

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:43

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of postoperative wound infections especially among patients undergoing orthopedics surgery. However, there is dearth of information on the clinical effectiveness...

    Authors: Joel M. Marwa, Isidor H. Ngayomela, Jeremiah Seni and Stephen E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:42

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  44. Content type: Technical advance

    An in vitro electrophysiological assay system, which can assess compound effects and thus show cardiotoxicity including arrhythmia risks of test drugs, is an essential method in the field of drug development a...

    Authors: Yuji Haraguchi, Atsushi Ohtsuki, Takayuki Oka and Tatsuya Shimizu

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:39

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Previously, we have demonstrated that human ABCB5 is a full-sized ATP-binding cassette transporter that shares strong homology with ABCB1/P-glycoprotein. ABCB5-transfected cells showed resistance to taxanes and a...

    Authors: Shingo Kondo, Keita Hongama, Kengo Hanaya, Ryota Yoshida, Takaaki Kawanobe, Kazuhiro Katayama, Kohji Noguchi and Yoshikazu Sugimoto

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:37

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Literature shows that continuity of care from a primary care physician is associated with better patient satisfaction and preventive care. This may also have an effect on patients’ use of antibiotics. This stu...

    Authors: Tai Pong Lam, Yuk Tsan Wun, Kwok Fai Lam and Kai Sing Sun

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015 16:40

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Reviewer acknowledgments