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  1. Digoxin is an important treatment option for reducing the ventricular rate in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). Digoxin has a narrow therapeutic window and large interindividual va...

    Authors: Toshinori Hirai, Hidefumi Kasai, Miyoko Naganuma, Nobuhisa Hagiwara and Tsuyoshi Shiga
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:14
  2. RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes (DNAzymes) are catalytic deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that have become a promising new class of gene suppressors by binding and cleaving target mRNA. This study investigated whet...

    Authors: Zhen Yu, Jun Guo, Tao Meng, Lei Ge, Lin Liu, Haijiang Wang and Xinhui Yang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:13
  3. Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy and the eleventh most common cancer worldwide. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a first-line antimalarial drug, has been found to have potent antitumo...

    Authors: Linfan Xiao, Cangcang Xu, Peiyu Lin, Lingli Mu and Xiaoping Yang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:10
  4. This study aimed to evaluate incidence risk and adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease among short-term users of acid-suppressants in South Korea.

    Authors: Jimyung Park, Seng Chan You, Jaehyeong Cho, Chan Hyuk Park, Woon Geon Shin, Rae Woong Park and Seung In Seo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:9
  5. Patients with liver diseases often have some form of anemia. Hematological dyscrasias are known side effects of antipsychotic drug medication and the occurrence of agranulocytosis under clozapine is well descr...

    Authors: Marie-Luise Bouvier, Karin Fehsel, Andrea Schmitt, Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner, Wolfgang Gaebel and Martina von Wilmsdorff
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:8
  6. Since an introduction of an ICH guidance in 2005, no new drugs were withdrawn from the market because of the causation of Torsade de Pointes (TdP). However, the risk of TdP is still a concern for marketed drug...

    Authors: Laura Krumpholz, Barbara Wiśniowska and Sebastian Polak
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:7

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:11

  7. FKB327 has been developed as a biosimilar of the adalimumab reference product (RP). We compared the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and immunogenicity of FKB327 with those of the adalimumab RP after a single do...

    Authors: Takuma Yonemura, Rie Yazawa, Miwa Haranaka, Kazuki Kawakami, Masayuki Takanuma, Takumi Kanzo, Dimitris Stefanidis and Yasumasa Arai
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:6
  8. The United Kingdom guideline for acute paracetamol overdose has recommended the use of ‘100-treatment line’. Emergency medical centers in some developing countries lack the resources for timely reporting of pa...

    Authors: Hyun Ho Jeong, Kyungman Cha, Kyoung Ho Choi and Byung Hak So
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:5
  9. Pregabalin (PGB) was approved as new anti-epileptic drugs with little information about its teratogenic effect.

    Authors: Omnia I. Ismail, Eman S. Shaltout, Nora Z. Abdellah, Diab F. Hetta, Wael M. A. Abd El-Ghani, Lobna A. Abdelzaher, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed Mahmoud, Asmaa M. Hasan, Noha A. Rashed and Noha Esmael Ebrahem
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:4
  10. Up-and-down procedure (UDP) was recommended to replace traditional acute toxicity methods. However, it was limited due to the long experimental period (20–42 days). To improve UDP, an improved UDP method (iUDP...

    Authors: Yan-Yu Zhang, Yu-Feng Huang, Jie Liang and Hua Zhou
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:3
  11. Py-mulin is a new pleuromutilin derivative with potent antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo, suggesting this compound may lead to a promising antibacterial drug after further development. The present ...

    Authors: Yuan Fan, Yunxing Fu, Yuhang Zhou, Yu Liu, Baocheng Hao and Ruofeng Shang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:2
  12. Pain relief remains a major subject of inadequately met need of patients. Therapeutic agents designed to treat pain and inflammation so far have low to moderate efficiencies with significant untoward side effe...

    Authors: Julius T. Dongdem, Gideon K. Helegbe, Kwame Opare-Asamoah, Cletus A. Wezena and Augustine Ocloo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2022 23:1
  13. Despite significant advancements in breast cancer therapy, novel drugs with lower side effects are still being demanded. In this regard, we investigated the anti-cancer features of verbascoside in 4 T1 mouse m...

    Authors: Atena Daneshforouz, Samad Nazemi, Omid Gholami, Marzieh Kafami and Bahareh Amin
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:72
  14. Leishmania aethiopica (L. aethiopica) is responsible for different forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia. Treatment heavily depends on limited drugs, together with drawbacks like toxicity and microbia...

    Authors: Markos Tadele, Solomon M. Abay, Peter Asaga, Eyasu Makonnen and Asrat Hailu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:71
  15. Gastric cancer is a common gastrointestinal cancer and currently has the third-highest mortality rate. Research shows that the natural compound narciclasine has a variety of biological activities. The present ...

    Authors: Yunfeng Yuan, Xue He, Xiang Li, Yan Liu, Yueliang Tang, Huiming Deng and Xinyuan Shi
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:70
  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most disabling neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) and/or ritualized me...

    Authors: Fatemeh Hadi, Shayan Kashefinejad, Leila Kamalzadeh, Saba Hoobehfekr and Mohammadreza Shalbafan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:69
  17. Ovarian cancer is the world’s dreaded disease and its prevalence is expanding globally. The study of integrated molecular networks is crucial for the basic mechanism of cancer cells and their progression. Duri...

    Authors: Suchitra Maheswari Ajjarapu, Apoorv Tiwari, Gohar Taj, Dev Bukhsh Singh, Sakshi Singh and Sundip Kumar
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:68
  18. Identification of internationally comparable indicators of medicines use are important for a country to implement strategies and regulations to improve usage of medicines. Sri Lanka established a new National ...

    Authors: P. Galappatthy, P. Ranasinghe, C. K. Liyanage, M. S. Wijayabandara, S. Mythily and R. L. Jayakody
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:67
  19. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the most widely used immunosuppressive drug in transplantation and for autoimmune diseases. Unfortunately, more than 30% of patients experience a typical gastrointestinal adverse eff...

    Authors: Manon Jardou, Quentin Provost, Clarisse Brossier, Émilie Pinault, François-Ludovic Sauvage and Roland Lawson
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:66
  20. The prevalence and characteristics of drug-related problems (DRPs) and factors associated with the occurrence of DRPs in the neurology unit in China remain unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence...

    Authors: Pengpeng Liu, Guangyao Li, Mei Han and Chao Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:65
  21. Dopamine D2 receptor agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline, are notable medications in the treatment of Parkinsonism, hyperprolactinemia, and hyperglycemia. An affiliation was found between the initiation of my...

    Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Fouad Shalaby, Hekma A. Abd El Latif, Mohamed El Yamani, May Ahmed Galal, Sherifa Kamal, Ikhlas Sindi and Raneem Masaood
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:64
  22. In clinical practice, the risk factors for pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-related hand-foot syndrome remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with hand-foot syndr...

    Authors: Yanfang Zhao, Wenjia Su, Guohua Liang, Xiaoyu Shan, Weiwei Ma, Dabei Tang, Liru Li, Xingjian Niu, Shu Zhao, Qingyuan Zhang and Wenhui Zhao
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:63
  23. Cell pyroptosis has been characterized by cell swelling and pro-inflammatory factors release to aggravate inflammatory reaction., such as interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interlukin18 (IL-18). However, the functi...

    Authors: Jin Huang, Pingsheng Fan, Miao Liu, Chengtao Weng, Gaofei Fan, Tengyue Zhang, Xiaohong Duan, Yang Wu, Lili Tang, Guohong Yang and Yabei Liu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:62
  24. The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in thelate 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease ...

    Authors: Maral Aminpour, Williams Ernesto Miranda Delgado, Soren Wacker, Sergey Noskov, Michael Houghton, D. Lorne J. Tyrrell and Jack A. Tuszynski
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:61
  25. This study aims to establish an in vitro monitoring approach to evaluate the pesticide exposures. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of three different body fluids of rats to the respective corresponding tissue...

    Authors: Yu-Jie Liang, Ding-Xin Long, Ming-Yuan Xu, Hui-Ping Wang, Ying-Jian Sun and Yi-Jun Wu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:60
  26. Tramadol is a widely used synthetic opioid for moderate to severe pain. Some studies have shown that tramadol can increase oxidative stress in different tissues of the body. Quercetin is also a substance with ...

    Authors: Samaneh Nakhaee, Khadijeh Farrokhfall, Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam, Mohsen Foadoddini, Masoumeh Askari and Omid Mehrpour
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:59
  27. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Novel Coronavirus named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared Pandemic by The World Health Organization (WHO) and a Public Health...

    Authors: Supangat, Elly Nurus Sakinah, Muhammad Yuda Nugraha, Tegar Syaiful Qodar, Bagus Wahyu Mulyono and Achmad Ilham Tohari
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:58
  28. Pharmacokinetics (PK) is the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Some drugs undergo zero-order kinetics (ethyl alcohol), first order kinetics (piroxicam) and mixed ...

    Authors: Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:57
  29. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the pediatric population may differ in types and frequencies compared to other populations. Respective studies analyzing ADR reports referring to children have already been per...

    Authors: Diana Dubrall, Sarah Leitzen, Irmgard Toni, Julia Stingl, M. Schulz, Matthias Schmid, Antje Neubert and Bernhardt Sachs
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:56
  30. Sunitinib is known to cause cardiotoxicity in clinical settings. However, among sunitinib-treated patients experiencing adverse cardiac events, decreased cardiac function was reportedly reversible in > 50% of ...

    Authors: Toshikatsu Matsui and Tadahiro Shinozawa
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:55
  31. Berberine (BBR) is a plant alkaloid that possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects with low oral bioavailability. In this study, micelle formulation of BBR was investigated to improve therapeutic ef...

    Authors: Roza Azadi, Seyyedeh Elaheh Mousavi, Negar Motakef Kazemi, Hasan Yousefi-Manesh, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat and Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:54
  32. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have become significant global health concerns. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of saroglitazar, a d...

    Authors: Rasoul Akbari, Tahereh Behdarvand, Reza Afarin, Hamid Yaghooti, Mohammad Taha Jalali and Narges Mohammadtaghvaei
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:53
  33. The cancer burden is rising rapidly worldwide, and it annually causes about 8.8 million deaths worldwide. Due to chemical drugs’ side effects and the emergence of resistance, the development of new green drugs...

    Authors: Alireza Valizadeh, Ali Asghar Khaleghi, Ghazaal Roozitalab and Mahmoud Osanloo
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:52
  34. The bark of Bois Bande (Parinari campestris) is a popular aphrodisiac in the Caribbean that has been traditionally used for many years to restore sexual vitality, increase sperm count, and treat erectile dysfunct...

    Authors: Venkatesan Sundaram, Stephanie Mohammed, M. R. Srinivasan, Jenelle Johnson, Rod Suepaul, Indira Pargass, Chernell John, Danesha Ramdhanie, Shiann Lallack, Esther Daniel and Lester Gilkes
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:51
  35. In septic mice, supplementing parenteral nutrition with 150 mg/day 3-hydroxybutyrate-sodium-salt (3HB-Na) has previously shown to prevent muscle weakness without obvious toxicity. The main objective of this st...

    Authors: Ruben Weckx, Chloë Goossens, Sarah Derde, Lies Pauwels, Sarah Vander Perre, Greet Van den Bergh and Lies Langouche
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:50
  36. Preconditioning of the heart ameliorates doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity. We tested whether pretreating cardiomyocytes by mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, mitoquinone (MitoQ) or SKQ1, would provid...

    Authors: Brian Sacks, Halil Onal, Rose Martorana, Amogh Sehgal, Amanda Harvey, Catherine Wastella, Hafsa Ahmad, Erin Ross, Adona Pjetergjoka, Sachin Prasad, Robert Barsotti, Lindon H. Young and Qian Chen
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:49
  37. Aidi Injection (ADI), a Chinese herbal preparation with anti-cancer activity, is used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several clinical studies have shown that co-administration of ADI with...

    Authors: Yuan Lu, Jie Pan, Xiaoqing Zhu, Shuai Zhang, Chunhua Liu, Jia Sun, Yueting Li, Siying Chen, Jing Huang, Chuang Cao, Yonglin Wang, Yongjun Li and Ting Liu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:48
  38. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with significant increases in short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Drug-induced AKI is a major concern in the present healthcare system. Our spontaneous reporti...

    Authors: Satoshi Nakao, Shiori Hasegawa, Ryogo Umetsu, Kazuyo Shimada, Ririka Mukai, Mizuki Tanaka, Kiyoka Matsumoto, Yu Yoshida, Misaki Inoue, Riko Satake, Yuri Nishibata, Jun Liao and Mitsuhiro Nakamura
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:47
  39. Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) have significantly reduced morbidity, mortality and improved the quality of life of people living with HIV infection. Poor quality ARVs may result in harmful consequences such as ad...

    Authors: Sophia Mziray, Betty A. Maganda, Kissa Mwamwitwa, Adam M. Fimbo, Seth Kisenge, Gerald Sambu, Yonah H. Mwalwisi, Adonis Bitegeko, Emmanuel Alphonce, Akida Khea, Danstan H. Shewiyo and Eliangiringa Kaale
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:46
  40. Abnormally elevated xanthine oxidase (XO) activity has been verified to cause various pathological processes, such as gout, oxidative stress injury and metabolic syndrome. Thus, XO activators may exhibit above...

    Authors: Liang Yue, Nan Jiang, Anguo Wu, Wenqiao Qiu, Xin Shen, Dalian Qin, Hong Li, Jing Lin, Sicheng Liang and Jianming Wu
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:45
  41. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common pathogen in development of peptic ulcers with pyroptosis. Rabeprazole, a critical component of standard triple therapy, has been widely used as the first-line regimen f...

    Authors: Jing Xie, Long Fan, Liya Xiong, Peiyu Chen, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Junhong Zhao, Zhaohui Xu, Lanlan Geng, Wanfu Xu and Sitang Gong
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:44
  42. Esculetin is a natural coumarin derivative from various plants with multiple pharmacological effects. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore the cardio protective potential of esculetin against iso...

    Authors: Chitikela P. Pullaiah, Vinod K. Nelson, Sushma Rayapu, Narasimha Kumar G V and Thyagaraju Kedam
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:43
  43. Melittin is one of the most studied antimicrobial peptides, and several in vitro experiments have demonstrated its antibacterial efficacy. However, there is evidence showing melittin has non-promising effects suc...

    Authors: Parvin Askari, Mohammad Hasan Namaei, Kiarash Ghazvini and Mehran Hosseini
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:42
  44. Recently, the development of nanocarriers and the improvement of their biochemical properties have became of great importance. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have many applications in drug delivery sys...

    Authors: Mohammad Dahri, Hossein Akbarialiabad, Ahmad Miri Jahromi and Reza Maleki
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:41
  45. Ethnic differences in testicular cancer rates (TCRs) are recognized internationally. Cannabis is a known risk factor for testicular cancer (TC) in multiple studies with dose-response effects demonstrated, howe...

    Authors: Albert Stuart Reece and Gary Kenneth Hulse
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:40
  46. The present study investigated the ameliorative effect of melittin, a major polypeptide in the venom of honeybee (Apis mellifera), on isoniazid-(INH) and rifampicin-(RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rat...

    Authors: Khalid Mohammed Naji, Bushra Yahya Al-Khatib, Nora Saif Al-Haj and Myrene R. D’souza
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:39
  47. Subtilisin QK is a serine protease in the subtilisin family, and is fermented by Bacillus subtilis QK02. The fibrinolytic activity of subtilisin QK was measured by detecting low molecular weight degradation produ...

    Authors: Shuai Xiao, Dingbang Hu, Ya Gao, Yang Ai, Sang Luo, Song Chen, Ben Wang, Li Zhou, Yanshan Dong and Yefu Wang
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:38
  48. Authors: Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Miguel Dibildox-Martinez, Jahir Sosa-Noguera, Ramón Sánchez-Medal and Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta
    Citation: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2021 22:37

    The original article was published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2019 20:5

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